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ISSN: 1075-4644

GLOBAL SURVEY Vol. 48 No. 12Y   2018





25th Edition


This updated edition lists changes of names and spelling of countries, regions, and cities. It is designed to provide accurate and useful information on the subject matter covered. Every reasonable effort is made to include current data from authoritative sources and verify its accuracy.




Current                                                           Formerly                                                  

Bangladesh (26 March 1971)                          Eastern Pakistan (15 August 1947-26 March 1971)

Belize (21 September 1981)                           British Honduras (1862-21 September 1981)`

Benin (30 November 1975)                             Dahomey (1 August 1960-30 November 1975)

                                                                        French West Africa (1895-1960)

Bosnia and Herzegovina (3 March 1992)       Yugoslavia (April 1945-March 1992)

                                                                        Independent State of Croatia (1941-1945)

                                                                        Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1941)

Botswana (30 September 1966)                     Bechuanaland

Burkina Faso (4 August 1984)                        Upper Volta (5 August 1960-4 August 1984)

                                                                        French West Africa (1895-1960)

Burundi (1 July 1962)                                     Ruanda-Urundi


Cameroon (1 January 1960)                           French Equatorial Africa (1910-September 1958)

Central African Republic (21 Sep. 1979)        Central African Empire (April 1976-21 September


                                                                        Central African Republic (13 August 1960-April 1976)

Union of Central African Republics (September 1958-

1 January 1960)

                                                                        French Equatorial Africa (1910-September 1958)

                                                                        Ubangi-Shari (1894-1910)

Chad (1 August 1960)                                     Union of Central African Republics (September 1958-1

                                                                        August 1960)

                                                                        French Equatorial Africa (1910-September 1958)

Congo (Brazzaville) (15 August 1960)            French Equatorial Africa (1910-September 1958)

Union of Central African Republics (September 1958-

15 August 1960)

Congo (Kinshasa) (30 June 1960)                  Zaire, Belgian Congo

Côte d’Ivoire (F)                                              Ivory Coast (E)

Czech Republic (1 January 1993)                  Czechoslovakia (28 October 1918-31 December 1992)


Djibouti (17 June 1977)                                   Territory of Afars and Issas


East Timor/Timor Leste (20 May 2002)          Iryan Jaya, Indonesia

Equatorial Guinea (12 October 1968) Spanish Guinea

Eritrea (24 May 1993)                                     part of Ethiopia

Eswatini (19 April 2018)                                  Swaziland

Ethiopia                                                           Italian East Africa, Abyssinia


Gabon (17 August 1960)                                 French Equatorial Africa (1910-September 1958)

Union of Central African Republics (September 1958-

                                                                        17 August 1960)

Ghana (6 March 1957)                                    Gold Coast

Guinea (2 October 1958)                                French West Africa (1895-2 October 1958)

Guinea-Bissau (10 September 1974)             Portuguese Guinea


Iran (1935)                                                       Persia

Ivory Coast (7 August 1960)                           French West Africa (1895-1960)


Kiribati (12 July 1979)                                     Gilbert Islands

Kosovo (17 February 2008)                            Serbia (June 2006-February 2008)


Lesotho (4 October 1966)                               Basutoland


Malawi (6 July 1964)                                       Nyasaland

Mali (22 September 1960)                              French Sudan (1880-1895)

                                                                        French West Africa (1895-1960)

Mauritania (28 November 1960)                     French West Africa (1895-28 November 1960)

Moldova (27 August 1991)                              USSR

Montenegro (3 June 2006)                              Serbia (June 2006-February 2008)

Myanmmar (since 18 September 1989)          Burma


Namibia (21 March 1990)                               South West Africa (1884-1990)

Niger (3 August 1960)                                     French West Africa (1895-1960)


Russia/Russian Federation (12 June 1990)   Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

                                                                        (20 December 1922-25 December 1991)

Rwanda (28 January 1961)                             Ruanda-Urundi


Samoa July 1997)                                           Western Samoa (1 January 1962-July 1997)

Senegal (20 June 1960)                                  French West Africa (1895-20 June 1960)

Serbia                                                              Yugoslavia (April 1945-March 1992)

Slovakia (1 January 1993)                              Czechoslovakia (28 October 1918-31 December 1992)

Somalia (1 July 1960)                                    Somaliland, Italian East Africa

Sri Lanka (22 May 1972)                                 Ceylon


Tanzania (26 April 1964)                                 Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Thailand (1949)                                               Siam

Timor Leste (1975)                                          Timor, Indonesia                                                 

Togo (27 April 1960)                                       Togoland

Tuvalu (1 October 1978)                                 Ellice Islands


United Arab Emirates (2 December 1971)      Trucial States


Vanuatu (30 July 1980)                                   New Hebrides


Zambia (24 October 1964)                              Northern Rhodesia

Zimbabwe (18 April 1980)                               Southern Rhodesia




Provinces and Regions


Arabian Gulf                                                    Persian Gulf

Baden-Württemberg, Germany                       Hohenzollern (1849-1952)

Bangla, India                                                   West Bengal (till 20 July 1999)

Dovzhansky District, Ukraine2                        Sverdlovsky District, Ukraine

Free State Province, South Africa                  Orange Free State

Gauteng Province, South Africa                     Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging (PWV)

Germany (part of since 1870)                         Prussia/Preussen, Germany (1660-1945)

Hoang Sa (V)                                                  Paracel Islands

Huangyuan Island (C)                                    Scarborough Shoal

Irian Barat (M)                                                 West New Guinea

Kalimantan (M)                                                Borneo

Latvia (part of since 1918)                              Courland/Kurland, Russia (1737-1918)

Latvia (part of since 1918)                              Livonia/Livland, Russia (1721-1918)

Mpumalange, South Africa                             Eastern Transvaal Province

Malukoi (M)                                                     Moluccas

Malvinas (S)                                                    Falkland Islands

Northern Province, South Africa                     Northern Transvaal

Nunavut Territory, Canada (1 April 1999)       part of North West Territory (NWT)

Nusa Tenggara (M)                                         Lesser Sunda Islands

Odisha (24 March 2011), India (O)                 Orissa

Poland (part of since 1945)                             Pommerania/Pommern, Germany (1720-1945)

Puducherry, India (20 September 2006)         Pondicherry

Senkaku-Shoto (J)                                          Diaoyu Tai (C)

Spratly Islands                                                Nansha (C)

Spratly Islands                                                Truong Sa (V)

Sulawesi (M)                                                   Celebes

Tanintharyi Region,Burma              Tanintharyi Division, Tenasserim Division

Boykivsky District, Ukraine2                            Telmanisvky District, Ukraine

Transdnestr, Molodova                                   Pridnestrovie

Xisha (C)                                                         Paracel Islands




Aasiaat, Greenland                                         Egedesminde

Alchevsk, Ukraine                                           Kommunarsk (1961-1991), Voroshilov (1931-1961)

Algabas, Kazakhstan                                      Zelenoye (until September 1992)

Alluitsoq, Greenland                                       Lichtenau

Alluitsup Paa, Greenland                                Sydprøven

Almaty                                                             Alma-Ata (R) (before 12 December 1997), Tselinograd

Ankara, Turkey                                                Angora (until 1923)

Antananarivo, Madagascar                             Tanarive (Malagasy, until 30 June 1978)

Antseranana (claimed by Madagascar,

 under UK control)                                           Diego Suarez, UK

Appat, Greenland                                            Ritenbenk

Aqmola, Kazakhstan                                       Akhmolinsk (until 1961), Tselinograd (R) (1961-1992)

Aqtau, Kazakhstan                                          Shevchenko (R)

Aqtöe, Kazakhstan                                          Aktyubinsk

Armavir, Armenia                                            Oktemberyan

Artemovsk (Artyomovsk), Ukraine                  Bakhmut (until 1924)

Artsvashen, Armenia                                      Bashkend

Astana, Kazakhstan                                        Aqmolo/Akmolo (R) (10 December 1997-6 May 1998)

Atyrau, Kazakhstan                                         Gur’yev (R)

Aukovskiy, Dagestan, Russia                         Novolsakskiy

Ausuittuq, Canada                                          Grise Fjord


Bakhtaran, Iran                                               Kermanshah

Ballary, Karnataka, India                                 Bellary (until 13 October 2008), India

Baltiysk, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia 1945)     Pillau, East Prussia, Germany (until August 1945)

Bengaluru, Karnataka, India                           Bangalore (until 1 November 2006), Benda Kaluru

Banjul, Gambia                                               Bathurst (until April 1973)

Bayash Utepova, Kazakhstan                        Tochka (until September 1992)

Belagavi, Karnataka, India                              Belgaum (until 13 October 2008), India

Bezhitsa (part of Bryansk since 1956)            Ordzhonikidzegrad (1941- January 1944),

                                                                        Bezhitsa (until 1941)

Beijing (i.e, Northern Capital), China             Peking (September 1949-December 1978)                                                                                             Peiping (Beiping) (1928-September 1949)                

                                                                        Peking (1646-1927)

Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea                     Fernando Póo

Birlikshil, Kazakhstan                                      Ilynka (until September 1992)

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan                                       Frunze (1926-1991), Bishkek/Pishpek (until 1926)

Brasov, Romania                                            Stalin (1950-1960)

Bujumbura, Burundi                                        Usumbura

Bunhe, Yenakiyevne, Ukraine2                                  Yuzhnokomunarivsk, Ukraine

Bydgoszcz, Poland                                         Bromberg (1939-1945)

Bytom, Poland (1945)                                     Beuthen, Silesia, Germany (until August 1945)


Centurian, South Africa                                   Verwoerdburg  (until 2000)

Chemnitz, Germany                                        Karl-Marx Stadt (May 1953- October 1990, German                                                                        Democratic Republic)

Chennai, India                                                 Madras (until 1996)

Cherkessk, Russia                                          Batalpashinsk , Sulimov (1920) , Yeshov (before 1920)

Chernyakhovsk, Kaliningrad Oblast', Russia Insterburg, East Prussia, Germany (until August                                                                                    1945)

Chikkamagaluru, Karnataka, India                  Chikmagalur (until 13 October 2008), India

Chisasibi, Quebec, Canada                            Fort George

Chisinau, Moldova                                          Kishinev (R)

Chrystiakove, Ukraine2                                   Torez, Ukraine

Comrat, Moldova                                             Komrat (R)


Da Nang, Vietnam                                          Tourane

Darling, India                                                  Darjeeling

Dashhowuz, Turkmenistan                             Tashauz (until 1995)

Dashtobod, Uzbekistan                                   Ulyanovo (until April 1996)

Dawei, Tanintharyi Region, Burma                 Tavoy (until 1989)

Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine                                Dnepropetrovsk (R) (1926-1991),                                                                                                  Yekaterinodar (until 1926)

Dnipro, Ukraine2                                              Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

Donets’k, Ukraine                                           Stalino (1924-1961), Yuzovka (until 1924)

Dovzhansk, Ukraine2                                      Krasnodon-Sorokyne, Ukraine

Dovzhansk, Ukraine2                                                         tSverdlovsk, Ukraine

Dushanbe, Tajikistan                                      Stalinabad (1929-1961), Dushambe (until 1929)

Dzhokhar, Chechnya, Russia                         Groznyy (until January 1997)


Eisenhüttenstadt, Brandenburg, Germany     Merger of Fürstenberg, Stalinstadt, and Schönfliess,                                                              German Democratic Republic, in 1961

Elblag, Poland (1945)                                     Elbing, East Prussia, Germany (until August 1945)

Elista, Russia                                                  Stepnoi

Engel’s/Engelsk, Saratov Oblast', Russia      Prokrovsk (until 1931)

Ereymentau, Kazakhstan                                Yermentau (R)

eThekwini, South Africa                                  Durban (1824-1999)


Furmanov, Ivano ‘Oblast, Russia                    Sereda (until 1941)


Gazajyk, Turkmenistan                                   Kazandzhik (R)

Gazi Magosa (T), TRNC                                 Famagusta, Cyprus

Gdańsk, Poland (1945)                                   Danzig, Western Prussia, Germany (1224-1920, 1939-1945), Free City of Danzig (1920-1939)

Girne (T), TRNC                                              Kyrenia (GR), Cyprus

Gliwice, Poland (1945)                                    Gleiwitz, Silesia, Germany (until August 1945)

Gorzow Wielkopolski, Poland (1945) Landsberg an der Warthe, Pommerania, Germany                                                                                 (until August 1945)

Guben, Germany                                            Wilhelm-Pieck Stadt, Guben (January 1961-October                                                                       1990, German Democratic Republic)

Gumdag, Turkmenistan                                  Kum-Dag (R)

Gusev, Kaliningrad Oblast', Russia (1945)     Gumbinnen, East Prussia, Germany (until August                                                                                    1945)

Gushgy, Turkmenistan                                    Kushka (R)

Gyandzha, Azerbaijan                                    Kirovabad (1935-1990), Gandzha (1920-1935), <R>                                                                Yelisavetpol (1813-1920)

Gyumri/Kumayri, Armenia                               Leninakan (1924-1990), Aleksandropol (until 1924)

Gyumri, Armenia                                             Kumayri (R)

Gzhatsk, Russia                                             Gagarin


Hagåtña, Guam                                               Agana (1668-1998)

Harare, Zimbabwe                                          Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia

Ho Chi Min City, Vietnam                               Saigon

Holubivka, Ukraine2                                        Kirovsk

Hospete, Karnataka, India                              Hospet (until 13 October 2008), India

Hrazdan, Armenia                                           Razdan (R)

Hubbali, Karnataka, India                               Hubli (until 13 October 2008), India


Igaliku, Greenland                                           Igaliko


Igaliku Kujalleq, Greenland                             Søndre Igaliko

                                                                        Undir Høfdi

Ilimanaq, Greenland                                        Klaushavn

Ilulissat, Greenland                                         Jakobshavn                

Inukjuak, Canada                                           Port Harrison

Iqaluit, Canada                                               Frobisher Bay (until 1987)

Issyk-kul’, Kyrgyzstan                                     Rybach’ye

Istanbul, Turkey                                              Constantinople (330AD-1930)

                                                                        Byzantium (600 BC-330 AD)

Istaravshan, Tajikistan                                    Ura-Tyube

Ittoqqoortoomiit, Greenland                            Scoresbysund

Ivanovo, Russia                                              Ivanovo Voznesensk (until 1932)

Ivano-Frankovsk, Ukraine                               Stanisławów, Poland

Izgutty Aytykova, Kazakhstan                         Skalistoye (until September 1992)

Izhevsk, Russia                                              Ustinov (until June 1988)


Jakarta, Indonesia                                           Batavia (1619-1945)

Jalal-Abad, Kyrgyzstan                                   Dzhalal-Abad (R)

Jayapura, Irian Jaya, Indonesia                      Hollandia (until 1945)

Kabanbay, Kazakhstan                                   Andreyevka (until September 1992)

Kadiyivka, Ukraine2                                         Stakhanov, Ukraine

Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India                          Gulbarga (until 13 October 2008), India

Kaliningrad, Russia (1945)                             Königsberg, East Prussia, Germany

                                                                        (until August 1945)

Kalmiuske, Starobeshivsky, Ukraine2             Komsomolske, Ukraine

Kangerluarsoruseq, Greenland                       Færingehavn

Kangerluk, Greenland                                     Diskofjord

Kangerlussuaq, Greenland                             Søndre Strømfjord

Kangilinnguit, Greenland                                Grønnedal

Karabulak, Kazakhstan                                  Vysokogorka (until September 1992)

Karachayevsk, Russia                                    Klukhori,  Mikoyan Shakhar

Karakalis, Armenia                                         Kirovakan

Kashi (C), China                                             Kashgar

Katowice, Poland                                            Stalinogrod (1953-1961)

Kaujuitoq, Nunavut Territory, Canada            Resolute, NWT, Canada

Kaynar, Kazakhstan                                        Sergeyevka (until September 1992)

Kemerovo, Russia                                          Stalinsk

Ketrzyn, Poland (1945)                                   Rastenburg, East Prussia, Germany

                                                                        (until August 1945)

Khadzhimukana, Kazakhstan                         Budennoye (until September 1992)

Khokand/Kokand/Quqon, Uzbekistan Fergana (1924-1991)

Khonobod, Uzbekistan                                    Sovetabad, Khanabad (R)

Khrestivka, Ukraine2                                                           Kirovske, Ukraine

Khrustalny, Ukraine2                                       Krasny Luch

Kimmirut, Nunavut, Canada                            Lake Harbour, NWT, Canada

Kinshasa, Congo (DR)                                    Léopoldville (until 1966)

Kisangani, Congo (DR)                                   Stanleyville (until 1966)

Klaipeda, Lithuania                                         Memel, Germany (23 March 1939-1945)                                                                                          Klaipeda, Lithuania (until 23 March 1939)

Kolkata, India (1 January 2001)                      Calcutta (1690-31 December 2000)

                                                                        Kalikata (until 1690)

Kołobrzeg, Poland (1945)                               Kolberg, Pommerania, Germany (until August 1945)

Koszalin, Poland (1945)                                  Köslin, Pommerania, Germany (until August 1945)

Klodzko, Poland (1945)                                  Glatz, Silesia, Germany (until August 1945)

Kraków, Poland                                               Krakau (1939-1945)

Krasnodar, Russia                                          Yekaterinodar (1794-1917)

Kulusuk, Greenland                                        Kap Dan

Kuznetsk, Russia                                           Stalinsk

Kyzylsu, Kazakhstan                                     Dirizhabi (until September 1992)


Lefkosia, Cyprus (Lefkosha (T))                      Nicosia (until February 1995)

Legnica, Poland (1945)                                   Liegnitz, Silesia, Germany (until August 1945)

Leninsk, Kazakhstan                                      Tyuratam

Liski, Russia                                                   Georgiu-Dezh

Łódź, Poland                                                   Litzmannstadt *(1939-1945)

Luhans’k, Ukraine                                           Lugansk (1889-1935; 1958-1970) (R)                                                                                             Voroshilovgrad (1935-1958; 1970-1989)


Mahajanga, Madagascar                                Majunga (until March 1978)

Makhambet, Kazakhstan                                Yamankhalinka

Makhachkala, Dagestan, Russia                    Port Petrov/Petrovsk (until 1917)

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea                             Santa Isabel, Spanish Guinea

Mangaluru, Karnataka, India                           Mangalore (until 13 October 2008), India

Maniitsoq, Greenland                                      Sukkertoppen

Mangaung, South Africa                                 Bloemfontein

Manyrak, Kazakhstan                                    Pokrovka (until September 1992)

Maputo, Mozambique                                     Lourenço Marques (until 1975)

Maraldy, Kazakhstan                                      Maralikha (until September 1992)

Mariupol’, Ukraine                                           Zhdanov (1949-1989), Mariupol’ (1779-1949)

Marks, Russia                                                 Yekaterinenshtadt

Maylin, Kazakhstan                                         Kustanay (until September 1992)

Mumbai, India                                     Bombay (until November 1995)

Mwali, Comoros                                              Mohéli

Mykolayiv, Ukraine                                          Nikolayev (R)

Mysure, Karnataka, India                                Mysore (until 13 October 2008), India


Naberezhnyye Chelny (Tatar Autonomous

Oblast'), Russia                                               Brezhnev (1982-1988)

Narsamiit, Greenland                                      Frederiksdal

N’Djamena, Chad                                           Fort Lamy, French Equatorial Africa (until 1960)

Nerlerit Inaat, Greenland                                 Constable Pynt

Njazidja, Comoros                                         Grande Comore

Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia                              Gor’kiy (1932-1990), Nizhniy Novgorod (1221-1932)

Nouadhibou, Mauritania                                  Port Etienne

Novokuznetsk, Russia                                    Kuznetsk-Sibirski (until 1931), Stalinsk (1932-1961)

Novomoskovsk, Russia                                  Stalinogorsk, Bobriki

Novosibirsk, Russia                                       Novonikolayevsk (1903-1925)

Novouralsk, Russia                                         Sverdlovsk-44 (secret defense site)

Nsanje, Malawi                                               Port Herald

Nuuk, Greenland                                             Godtháb

Nzwani, Comoros                                          Anjouan


Olmaliq, Uzbekistan                                        Almalyk (R)

Olsztyn, Poland (1945)                                   Allenstein, East Prussia, Germany (until August 1945)

Opȯle, Poland (1945)                                      Oppeln, Silesia, Germany (until August 1945)

Oqaatsut, Greenland                                       Rodebay

Oral, Kazakhstan                                            Ural’sk (R)      

Ordzhonikidzevskaya, Russia            Sleptssovskaya

Orenburg, Russia                                            Chkalov (1938-1957), Orenburg (1735-1938)

Oskemen, Kazakhstan                                    Ust-Kamenogorsk

Ostroda, Poland (1945)                                   Osterrode, East Prussia, Germany (until August 1945)

Orenburg, Russia                                           Chkalov (1938-1957), Orenburg (1735-1938)

Öskemen, Kazakhstan                                    Ust’-Kamenogorsk (R)

Özgön, Kyrgyzstan                                         Uzgen (R)

Ozersk, Russia                                               Chelyabinsk-65 (secret defense site since 1945)


Paamiut, Greenland                                        Frederiksháb

Perm, Russia                                                 Molotov (1940-1957), Perm (1780-1940)

Petropavlovsk, Russia                                    Akhtyubinsk

Pila, Poland (1945)                                         Schneidemühl, Pommerania, Germany (until August                                                                        1945)

Pituffik, Greenland                                          Thule Air Base

Podgorica, Montenegro                                   Titograd (1944-1991)

Poznań, Poland                                              Posen (1939-1945)

Pugachov/Pugachovsk, Saratov

Oblast', Russia                                                Nikolayevsk (until 1918)

Pune, India                                                      Poona (till 1970s)

Pushkin, Russia                                             Detskoye Selo (1918-1937), Tsarskoye Selo (until                                                                          1918)

Prokovs'k, Russia                                          Engels (1931-1942), Prokosv'k (1747-1931)


Qaanaaq, Greenland                                      Thule

Qaqortok. Greenland                                      Julianeháb

Qassiarsuk, Greenland                                   Brattahlid

Qaraghandy, Kazakhstan                               Karaganda (R)

Qarshi, Uzbekistan                                         Karshi (R)

Qasigiannguit, Greenland                               Christiansháb

Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland                               Godhavn

Qeqertarsuattsiaat, Greenland                        Fiskenæsset

Qostanay, Kazakhstan                                    Kustanay (R)

Quqon, Uzbekistan                                         Kokand (R)

Qyzilorda, Kazakhstan                                    Kyzyl-Orda (R), Ak mechet (-1926), Petrovs'k


Rivne, Ukraine                                                Rovno, Równo, Poland

Rotfront, Kyrgyzstan                                       Bergtal (until 1945)

Rybinsk, Russia                                              Andropov (1984-1989), Rybinsk (1958-1983),

                                                                        Shcherbakov (1946-1957)


Saint Petersburg, Russia                                 Leningrad (1924-1991), Petrograd (1914-1924),          

                                                                        Saint Petersburg (1703-1914)

Samara, Russia                                             Kuybyshev (1935-January 1991)

Sarov, Russia                                                Kremlyov (1994-August 1995),                                                                                                    Arzamas-16 (secret nuclear base, 1946-1994)

Sarytau, Kazakhstan                                      Platovo (until September 1992)

Semey, Kazakhstan                                        Semipalatinsk (R)

Sergiyev Posad, Russia                                 Zagorsk (1930-23 September 1991), Sergiyev (before 1930)

Seversk, Russia                                              Tomsk-7 (secret defense site)

Seydi, Turkmenistan                                      Neftezavodsk (R)

Shakhrikhan, Uzbekistan                                Stalino

Shakhty, Russia                                              Aleksandrovsk-Grushevsky (until 1920), Grushevsk

Shalqar, Kazakhstan                                       Chelkar (R)

Sharypovo, Russia                                         Chernenko

Shenyang, China                                            Mukden (1634-1945) (Manchu)

                                                                        Fengtiang (1932-1945) (C)

Shivamogga, Karnataka, India                        Shimoga (until 13 October 2008), India    

Shu, Kazakstan                                               Chu (R)

Shymkent, Kazakhstan                                   Chimkent (R)

Shymyldyk, Kazakhstan                                 Filippovka (until September 1992)

Simbirsk, Russia                                             Ul’yanovsk (1924-1991)

Sisimiut, Greenland                                        Holsteinsborg

Slupsk, Poland (1945)                        Stolp, Pommerania, Germany (until August 1945)

Sovietsk, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia (1945)   Tilsit, East Prussia, Germany (until August 1945)

Stargard Szczecinskii, Poland (1945)             Stargard, Pommerania, Germany (until August 1945)

Stavropol’, Russia                                           Toliyatti (1970-), Stavropol' (1943-1970),

                                                                        Voroshilovsk (1935-1943), Stavropol’ (before 1935)

Sughd, Tajikistan                                            Khudzhand/Khujand, Tajikistan                                                                                                   Leninabad (1961-March 1991)

Sulin, Rostov Oblast, Russia                          Krasny Sulin (until 1926)

Sulusary, Kazakhstan                                     Igorevka (until September 1992)

Swinoujscie, Poland (1945)                            Swinemünde, Pommerania, Germany

                                                                        (until August 1945)

Szczecin, Poland (1945)                                 Stettin, Pommerania, Germany (until August 1945)

Szczecinek, Poland (1945)                             Neustettin, Pommerania, Germany (until August 1945)


Tacheng, also T’a-ch’eng                                T’ah-ch’eng, Xinjiang Chuguchak

Tallinn, Estonia                                               Revel (until 1940)

Tashir, Armenia                                               Kalinino (until March 1991)

Thiruvanathapuram, India                               Trivandrum (until 1998)

Tighina, Moldova                                             Bendery (R)

Toamasina, Madgascar                                 Tamatave (until March 1978)

Toliara, Madagascar                                       Tlera (until March 1978)

Torez, Ukraine                                    Chistyakovo, Ukraine (1870-1964),

                                                                        Alekseyevo-Leonovo (1840-1870)

                                                                        Alekseyevka (1770-1840)

Torghay, Kazakstan                                        Yurgay (R)

Toskayyn, Kazakhstan                                    Budennovka (until September 1992)

Tovuz, Azerbaijan                                           Tauz (R)

Trekhgorniyy, Russia                                      Zlatoust-36 (secret defense site)

Tsar Kaloyan (Razgrad Region), Bulgaria      Khlebarova (1948-March 1991)

Tshwane, South Africa                                   Pretoria (until 22 July 2000, final

                                                                        approval on 17 March 2005))

Tskhinvali, Georgia                                         Stalinir (1934-1961), Ts’hinvali

Tugyl, Kazakhstan                                          Priozernyy (until September 1992)

Tumakuru, Karnataka, India                            Tumkur (until 13 October 2008), India

Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan             Krasnovodsk (until 1992)

Tver, Russia                                                    Kalinin (1932-1990), Tver (before 1932)


Ulaan Baatar (Red Hero), Mongolia               Urga (till 27 May 1921)

Ulan-Ude, Russia                                            Verkhneudinsk (until 1934)

Ushbulak, Kazakhstan                                    Glinovka (until September 1992)

Ushbulak, Kazakhstan                                    Pugachevo (until September 1992)

Ussurysk, Russia                                            Vorshilov (1935-1957)

                                                                        Nikol’sk-Ussuriyski (1860-1935)


Vanadzor, Armenia                                        Kirovakan Karaklis

Varanasi, India                                               Benares/Banaras

Varna, Bulgaria                                              Stalin

Vijapura, Karnataka, India                              Bijapur (until 13 October 2008), India

Vladikavkaz, Russia                                      Ordzhonikdze (1955-1990), Dzaudzhikau (1944-1954),                                                                 Ordzhonikdze (1932-1943), Vladkavkaz (before 1932)

Volgograd, Russia                                         Stalingrad (10 April 1925-1961),

                                                                        Tsaritsyn (1859-10 April 1925)

Vung Tau, Vietnam                                         Cap St. Jacques

Vyatka, Russia                                               Kirov (1934)


Wroclaw, Poland (1945)                                 Breslau, Silesia. Germany (until August 1945)


Xankändi, Azerbaijan                                      Stepanakert (R)


Yegindybulak, Kazakhstan                             Kalinino (until September 1992)

Yejmiadzin, Armenia                                       Echiamadzin (R)

Yekaterinburg, Russia                        Sverdlovsk (1924-23 September 1991),

                                                                        Yekaterinburg (1721-1924)

Yelizavetgrad, Ukraine                                    Kirovograd (1935), Zinovievsk (1917-1934)

Yenakiyevo, Ukraine                                      Rykovo (1920)

Ysyk-Köl, Kyrgyzstan                                      Issyk-Kul’ (1939) (R), Rybach’ye

Yuzovka, Ukraine                                           Stalino


Zelenokumsk, Russia                         Vorontsovo-Aleksandrovskoye

Zertas, Kazakhstan                                         Galkino (until September 1992)

Zhanalyk, Kazakhstan                                    Kirovo (until September 1992)

Zhanatileu. Kazakhstan                                  Andreyevka (until September 1992)

Zhangaqazaly, Kazakhstan                            Novokazalinsk  (R)

Zhangaözen, Kazakhstan                               Novyy Uzen’ (R)

Zhantikey, Kazakhstan                                  Semipalatinsk (until September 1992)

Zhetyaral, Kazakhstan                                   Komsomol (until September 1992)

Zhety Su, Kazakhstan                                     Semirechye (R)

Zhezqazghan, Kazakhstan                             Dzhezkazgar (R)

Zhyngyldy, Kazakhstan                                  Mangistau (until September 1992)

Zlín, Czech Republic                                       Gottwaldov

Zmiyiv, Ukraine                                               Gotval’d (R)


Spelling Changes


Akhalk’alak’i, Georgia                                     Akhalkali (R)

Akhalts’ikhe, Georgia                                     Akhaltsikhe (R)

Almaty, Kazakhstan (28 January 1993)          Alma-Ata (R)

Andijon, Uzbekistan                                        Andizhan (R)

Aqmola, Kazakhstan                                       Akmolinsk (R)

Aqtöbe, Kazakhstan                                        Akhtyubinsk (R)

Aral, Kazakhstan                                             Aral’sk (R)

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan (17 April 1992)        Ashkhabad (R)


Babruysk, Belarus                                           Bobruysk (R)

Balqash, Kazakhstan                                      Balkash (R)

Ballti, Moldova                                                Bel’tsy (R)

Baranovichi, Belarus                                       Baranavichy (R)

Bayramali, Turkmenistan                                Bayram-Ali (R)

Barysaw, Belarus                                            Borisov (R)

Basarabeasca, Moldova                                 Bessarabka (R)

Bat’umi, Georgia                                             Batumi (R)

Berdyans’k, Ukraine                                        Berdyansk (R)

Bilhorod-Dnistrovs’kyy, Ukraine                      Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy (R)

Borjomi, Georgia                                             Borzhomi (R)

Bukhoro, Uzbekistan                                       Bukhara (R)

Büzmein, Turkmenistan                                  Bezmein (R)


Charjev, Turkmenistan                                    Chardzhou (R)

Charkiv, Ukraine                                             Charkov (R)

Chernivtsi, Ukraine                                         Chernovtsy (R)

Chiat’ura, Georgia                                           Chiatura (R)

Chirchiq, Uzbekistan                                       Chrichik (R)


Dilijan, Armenia                                               Dilizhan (R)

Dnieper River, Ukraine                                   Dnepr (R)

Dniestr River, Ukraine                                     Dnestr (R)

Dniprodzerzhyns’k, Ukraine                            Dneprodzgerzhinsk (R)

Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine                                Dnepropetrovsk (R)

Donets’k, Ukraine                                           Donetsk (R)

Dubasary, Moldova                                         Dubossary (R)


Embi, Kazakshtan                                           Emba (R)


Farghona, Uzbekistan                                     Fergana (R)


Gäncä, Azerbaijan                                          Gyandzha (R)

Göyçay, Azerbaijan                                         Geokchay (R)

Gudaut’a, Georgia                                           Gudauta (R)


Homyel’, Belarus                                             Gomel’ (R)

Hrodna, Belarus                                              Grodno (R)


Ijevan, Armenia                                               Idzhevan (R)

Ivano-Frankivs’k, Ukraine                               Ivano-Frankovsk (R)


Jermuk, Armenia                                             Dzhermuk (R)


Kälbäcär, Azerbaijan                                       Kel’badzhar (R)

Kalinkavichy, Belarus                                    Kalinkovichi (R)

Kapan, Armenia                                              Kafan (R)

Kara-Köl, Kyrgyzstan                                      Kara-Kul’ (R)

Kerch, Ukraine                                                Kerch’ (R)

Kharkiv, Ukraine                                             Khar’kov (R)

Khmel’nyts’kyy, Ukraine                                 Khmel’nitskiy (R)        

Khorug, Tajikistan                                           Khorog (R)

Kirovohrad, Ukraine                                        Kirovograd (R)

K’obulet’i, Georgia                                          Kobuleti (R)

Kökshetau, Kazakstan                                    Kokchetav (R)

Kramators’k, Ukraine                                      Kramatorsk (R)

Krasnowodsk, Turkmenistan                         Krasnovodsk (R)

Kremenchuk, Ukraine                                     Kremenchug (R)

Kryvyy Rih, Ukraine                                        Krivoy Rog (R)

Kulob, Tajikistan                                             Kulyab (R)

K’ut’aisi, Georgia                                             Kutaisi (R)

Kyiv/Kyyiv, Ukraine                                         Kiev (R)

Kyzyl-Kyya, Kyrgyzstan                                  Kyzyl-Kiya (R)


Laçin, Azerbaijan                                            Lachin (R)

Länkäran, Azerbaijan                                      Lenkoran’ (R)

Luts’l, Ukraine                                                 Lutsk (R)

L’viv, Ukraine                                                  L’vov (R)


Mahilyow, Belarus                                           Mogilev (R)

Maladzchechna, Belarus                                Molodechno (R)

Marghilon, Uzbekistan                                    Margilan (R)

Mazyr, Belarus                                                Mozyr’ (R)

Mingäçevir, Azerbaijan                                   Mingechaur (R)

Murghob, Tajikistan                                         Murghab (R)


Nawoiy, Uzbekistan                                        Navoi (R)

Navapolatsk, Belarus                                      Novopolotsk (R)

Naxçivan, Azerbaijan                                      Nakhichevan’ (R)

Nebitdag, Turkmenistan                                  Nebit-Dag (R)


Och’amch’ire, Georgia                                    Ochamchire (R)

Odesa, Ukraine                                               Odessa (R)

Ozurget’i, Georgia                                           Ozurgeti (R)


Pastavy, Belarus                                             Postavy (R)

Petropavl, Kazakhstan                                    Petropavlovsk (R)

Polatsk, Belarus                                              Polotsk (R)

P’ot’i, Georgia                                                 Poti (R)

Pryluky, Ukraine                                              Priluki (R)


Qaraghandy, Kazakhstan                               Karaganda (R)

Qazimämmäd. Azerbaijan                              Kazi Magomed (R)

Qostanay, Kazakhstan                                    Kustanay (R)

Quba, Azerbaijan                                            Kuba (R)

Qurghonteppa, Tajikistan                                Kurgan-Tyube (R)

Qyzlorda, Kazakhstan                                     Kyzyl Orda (R)


Rechytsa, Belarus                                           Rechitsa (R)

Ribnita, Moldova                                             Rybnitsa (R)

Rivne, Ukraine                                                Rovno (R)

Rust’avi, Georgia                                            Rustavi (R)


Säki, Azerbaijan                                              Sheki (R)

Salyan, Azerbaijan                                          Sal’yany (R)

Samarqand, Uzbekistan                                 Samarkand (E, R)

Samaxi, Azerbaijan                                         Shemakha (R)

Semey, Kazakhstan                                        Semipalatinsk (R)

Sirdaryo, Uzbekistan                                       Syrdar’ya (R)

Sokhumi, Georgia                                           Sukhumi (R)

Soroca, Moldavia                                            Soroki (R)

Step’anavan, Armenia                        Stepanavan (R)

Sülüktü, Kyrgyzstan                                        Sulyukta (R)

Sumqayyt, Azerbaijan                                     Sumgait (R)

Sunzha, Republic of Ingushetia, Russia         Ordshonikidzevskaya (R)


Taldyqorghan, Kazakhstan                             Taldy Kurgan (R)

Tash-Kömür, Kyrgyzstan                                Tash-Kumur (R)

Tejen, Turkmenistan                                       Tedzhen (R)

T’elavi, Georgia                                               Telavi (R)

Temirtau, Kazakhstan                                     Temirtau (R)

Termiz, Uzbekistan                                         Termez (R)

Ternopil’, Ukraine                                            Ternopol’ (R)

Tiraspol, Moldova                                            Tiraspol’ (R)

Toshkent, Uzbekistan                                     Tashkent (E, R)

Tqvarch’eli, Georgia                                        Tkvarcheli (R)

Ts’khinvali, Georgia                                        Tskhinvali (R)

Türkistan, Kazakhstan                                    Turkestan (R)


Uchquduq, Uzbekistan                                    Uchkuduk (R)

Urganch, Uzbekistan                                      Urgench (R)

Uroteppa, Tajikistan                                        Ura-Tyube (R)

Uzhhorod, Ukraine                                          Uzhgorod (R)


Vinnytsya, Ukraine                                          Vinnitsa (R)

Vitsyebsk, Belarus                                          Vitebsk (R)


Yangon, Burma                                               Rangoon (until June 1989)

Yevlax, Azerbaijan                                          Yevlakh (R)


Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine                                    Zaprosh’ye (R)

Zaqatala, Azerbaijan                                       Zakataly (R)

Zarafshon, Uzbekistan                                    Zerafshan (R)

Zeastap’oni, Georgia                                       Zestafoni (R)

Zhambyl, Kazakhstan                                     Dzhambul (R)

Zhytomyr, Ukraine                                           Zhitomir (R)



Spelling Changes:

Provinces and Cities of the People’s Republic of China1


Pin-yin                                                 Wade-Giles System

Anhui                                                               Anhwei

Fujian                                                              Fukien

Gansu                                                             Kansu

Guangdong                                                     Kwangtung

Guangxi                                                           Kwangsi

Guizhou                                                           Kweichow

Hebei                                                               Hopeh/Hopei

Heilongjiang                                                    Heilungkiang

Henan                                                             Honan

Hubei                                                               Hupeh/Hupei

Hunan                                                             Hunan

Jiangsu                                                            Kiangsu

Jiangxi                                                             Kiangsi

Jilin                                                                  Kirin

Liaoning                                                          Lianoning

Nei Mongol                                                      Inner Mongolia

Ningxia                                                            Ningsia

Qinghai                                                            Tsinghai

Shaanxi                                                           Shensi

Shandong                                                        Shantung

Shanxi                                                             Shansi

Sichuan                                                           Szechwan

Xinjiang                                                           Sinkiang

Xizang                                                             Tibet

Yuannan                                                          Yunnan

Zhejiang                                                          Chekiang


Beijing                                                             Peking

Changchun                                                      Ch’anf-ch’un/Ch’ang’un

Changsha                                                        Ch’ang-sha

Chengdu                                                         Ch’eng-tu

Chongqing                                                       Ch’ung-ch’ing/Chungking

Dalian                                                              Dairen

Datong                                                            Tat’ung

Fuzhou                                                            Foochow

Guangzhou                                                     Canton

Guiyang                                                           Kweiyang

Guling                                                              Kuling

Haikou                                                             Houhow

Hangzhou                                                        Hangchow

Hankou                                                            Hankow

Harbin                                                             Harbin

Hefei                                                                Ho-fei

Hohhot                                                            Hu-ho-hao-t’e

Huaibei                                                            Hwaipei

Jiangsu                                                            Kiangsu

Jinan                                                               Tsinan

Jinzhou                                                            Chinchow

Kunming                                                          K’un-ming

Lanzhou                                                          Lanchow

Lhasa                                                              Lhasa

Liaodong                                                         Liaotung

Lüda                                                                Lüta/Ta-lien/Dairen

Manzhouli                                                        Manchouli

Nanchang                                                        Nan-ch’ang

Nanjing                                                            Nanking

Nanning                                                           Nan-ning

Pukou                                                              Pukow

Qingdao                                                          Ch’ing-tao/Tsingtao

Shache                                                            Sha-ch’e/Yarkant/Yarkand

Shandong                                                        Shantung

Shanghai                                                         Shanghai

Shantou                                                           Shan-t’ou/Swatow

Shenyang                                                        Mukden

Shijiazhuang                                                   Shih-chia-chuang

Taiyuan                                                           T’ai-yüan

Tianjin                                                             Tientsin

Ürümqi                                                            Urumchi

Wuhan                                                             Wu-han

Yan’an                                                             Yenan

Yinchuan                                                         Yin-ch’uan

Xiamen                                                            Hsia-men/Amoy

Xian                                                                 Sian

Xinan                                                               Tsinan

Xining                                                              Sining/Hsi-ning

Xuzhou                                                            Hsuchow

Zhangjiakou                                                    Kalgan

Zhejiang                                                          Chekiang

Zhengzhou                                                      Cheng-chou



1 On 1 January 1979, the government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) adopted officially the pinyin system of writing Chinese characters in the Latin alphabet. For the English version of Romanized Chinese words, it replaced the familiar Wade-Giles system.

2 On 12 and 19 May 2016, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine renamed 38 population areas in the occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk in the Donbas region, accvording to Interfax-Ukraine.                  



C         Chinese (Mandarin)

E          English

F          French

GR       Greek

J          Japanese

M         Malay

O         Oriya

R         Russian

S          Spanish

T          Turkish

V          Vietnamese


TRNC Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus


Sources: Government information offices, IO database, France diplomatie, United Nations (UN),  and US Department of State.


Completion: Includes information dated 10 November 2018 or earlier. Completed in November 2018.


(Replacing Countries, Regions, and Cities: Name and Spelling Changes, 24th  Edition, Global Survey, Vol. 46, No. 487/12X, December 2016.)




Published by The International Observer of Washington DC USA