ISSN: 1075-4644

GLOBAL SURVEY Vol. 49 No. 3V/515   November 2019




22nd Revised Edition


This annotated listing contains over 1,850 of the most frequent and common abbreviations used in international and political reporting and documentation.  Because of the sheer numbers of abbreviations used and created every day, the compilation is by its nature incomplete.



A/H1N1         Influenza virus, subtype A, also called swine flu (WHO)

A-A               Asian-African [conference]

AAEA           Arab Atomic Energy Agency

AAMS           Associated African and Malagasy States (EU)                                     

AAPSO                   Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organization, also OSPAAAL

AB                appellate body (WTO)              

ABAC           APEC Business Advisory Council                                                           

ABACC*        Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear                  


ABC States   Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

ABEDA                   Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (est. 18 Feb. 1974), also   


ABG             Autonomous Bougainville Government (Papua New Guinea)

ABL              Administrative Boundary Line (EU)

ABM             Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972)                                 

AC                Atlantic Council (NATO)                                                          

ACA              Academic Cooperation Association (est. 1993)                                 

ACA#            Allied Control Authority [Germany]                                              

ACABQ         Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (UNSG)

ACC             Administrative Committee on Coordination (UN)                                        

ACC#            Arab Cooperation Council (Feb. 1989-1990)

ACD             Asian Cooperation Dialog (est. 2002)

ACTA           Anti-Counterfeiting and Trade Agreement (WIPO)

ACCT*#                  Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (est. 21 Mar. 1970-1996),  

                     see ACF, OIF

ACDS           APEC Communications and Database System

ACF#            Agency for the French-Speaking Community (renamed 1996), see OIF,      


ACM             Arab Common Market                                                                          

ACP              African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries, Lomé Treaty (EU) (est. 1 Apr.     


ACP*            Panama Canal Authority (Autoridad del Canal de Panama)

ACRI            Africa Crisis Response Initiative (est. 1998)(USA)

ACRS           Arms Control and Regional Security (EU) (sessions started January      


ACS              Association of Caribbean States (est. 29 July 1994), also AEC

ACT              arms control talks                                                                        

ACU             Administration of the Customs Union 

ACU             Asian Clearing Unit                                                                     

AD                Administrative Commission (UN)                                           

ADB              Asian Development Bank, see ASDB                                                     

ADC             advanced developing country, also NIE                                              

ADC             Andean Development Corporation (est. 7 Feb. 1968), also CAF

ADELA          Atlantic Community Development Organization for Latin America

ADF#            Arab Deterrent Force [Syrian forces in Lebanon] (legitimized by 1979          

                     Cairo Declaration)         

ADF              Asian Development Fund                                                             

AEC*            Association of Caribbean States (Asociacíon de Estados del Caribe)

AEM             ASEAN Economic Ministers                                                    

AEPS           Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (est. 1991)

AESD           Arab Economic and Social Development Summits

AETF            UN Afghanistan Emergency Trust Fund (UNOCHA)

AF                Africa (USG)                                                                                               

AFCAC                   African Civil Aviation Commission

AfCFTA        African Continental Free Trade Area     

AFDB           African Development Bank (est. 4 Aug. 1963), also BAD

AFDF            African Development Fund                                                             

AFESD                   Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (est. 16 May 1968)

AFISMA        African-led International Support Mission in Mali (est. 20 Dec. 2012)

AFTA            Africa Free Trade Area (est. 22 Oct. 2008)

AFTA            ASEAN Free Trade Area (est. Jan 1992)

AFTZ            Africa Freer Trade Zone, see AFTA

AFU#            Arab Federal Union (14 Feb. 1958-13 July 1958, Iraq-Jordan)

AG#              Andean Group, formally known as Andean Pact (est. 26 May 1969), also      

                     GA, now CAN

AG                Australia Group (CBW)                                                                        

AGBM           Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (FCCC)

AGC             African Groundnut Council, also APC

AGOA           African Growth Opportunity Act (US)                                                     

AHLC            Ad Hoc Liaison Committee (EU-USA on Middle East Peace Process)

AI                 Amnesty International (est. 1961)                                                       

AIA#             Afghan Interim Authority 

AIDS             Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, final stage of HIV (WHO), see     


AIEC             Association of Iron-Ore Exporting Countries

AIFLD           American Institute for Free Labor Development                                         

AIG               Afghan Interim Government                                                              

AIJV             ASEAN Industrial Joint Venture                                                            

AIMF*           International Association of Mayors                                                          

AIOC            Azerbaijan International Operating Consortium

AIOEC          Association of Iron Ore Exporting Countries

AIPO            ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Organization 

AIT               American Institute in Taiwan

AJOC           Abyei Joint Oversight Committee (South Sudan-Sudan)

AKB#            Allied Kommandatura Berlin                                                         

AL                Arab League, see LAS                                                            

ALADI*         Latin American Integration Association, see LAFTA, LAIA

ALBA*           Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (est. 14 Dec. 2004, 29 Apr. 2006)

ALCA*          Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)                                    

ALCSA*                  Free Trade Area of South America

ALDE            Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (EP)

ALIDE*         Association of Latin American Development Banks (est. 1968)

AMB             ambassador                                                                   

AMCHAM      American Chamber of Commerce 

AMF             Arab Monetary Fund (est. 27 Apr. 1976)                                

AMG             ASEAN Alliance for Mutual Growth

AMIB            African Mission in Burundi

AMIS            AU Mission in Sudan

AMIS EU SA# EU Supporting Action to the African Union Mission in Sudan (18 July

                      2005-31 Dec. 2007)         

AMISOM       AU Mission to Somalia (est. Mar. 2007)

AMM#           EU Monitoring Mission in Aceh (Aceh Monitoring Mission) (15 Sep. 2005-

                     15 Dec. 2006)

AMU             Arab Maghreb Union, also UMA  

ANAD           Agreement on Non-Aggression and Defense Aid [West Africa]

ANCERTA    Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement   

                     (est. 1983)

ANCOM                  Andean Common Market

ANDS           Afghanistan National Development Strategy

ANDSF         Afghan National Defense and Security Forces                                          

ANRPC         Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries

ANZCER       Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations, also CER

ANZUK                   Australia-New Zealand-United Kingdom  

ANZUS                   Australia-New Zealand-United States [Treaty and Council] (est. 1 Sep.         


AOAE           Arab Organization for Atomic Energy (LAS)

AOI               Arab Organization for Industrialization

AOS             area of separation (UN)

AOSIS          Association of Small Island States (est. 1991)

APC              African Peanut (Groundnut) Council, also AGC                            

APDC           Asian and Pacific Development Center                                     

APEC           Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation                                         

APELL          Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (UNEP)

APF              African Peace Facility

APO             Asian Productivity Organization                                  

APPF            Asia-Pacific Parliamentary Forum

APPU           Asia-Pacific Postal Union

APSA           African Peace and Security Architecture

APT              Asia-Pacific Telecommunity

APT              ASEAN Plus Three (China, Japan, Korea (ROK) (ASEAN)

APU              Arab Postal Union                                                        

APU              Asian Parliamentarians’ Union

ARABSAT     Arab Satellite Communications Organization

ARATS                   Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Strait (est. 1993, China)

ARE              Arab Republic of Egypt, formerly UAR                                     

ARF              ASEAN Regional Forum                                                           

ASDB           Asian Development Bank (est. 19 Dec. 1966), also ADB

ASEAN                   Association of Southeast Asian Nations                                            

ASEM           Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEAN) 

ASF              African Standby Force (authorized in May 2003, AU)

ASG             Afghanistan Support Group

ASG             APEC Substantive Group                                                               

ASI               Anti-Slavery International                                          

ASIS             Association of Small Island States                                   

ASPAC                   Asian and Pacific Council

ASSI             Anti-Slavery International Society for the Protection of Human Rights (est.                      1839)

ASSIMER*     International Mercury Producers Association

ATA              Atlantic Treaty Association (est. 18 June 1954) 

ATCM           Antarctica Consultative Meeting                                                  

ATPA            Andean Trade Preferences Act (USA)                                                 

ATPC           Association of Tin Producing Countries (est. Oct. 1983)

ATS              Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty

ATT              Arms Trade Treaty (UN)

ATTU            Atlantic-to-the-Urals zone (CFE)                                

AU                African Union (est. 2001, to replace OAU) 

AUHIP          African Union High-Level Implementation Panel                             

AVIP             APEC Voluntary Investment Project                    

AVSEC                   Aviation Security Trust Fund (ICAO)



B-H               Bosnia and Herzegovina [formerly part of Yugoslavia]

BA                Baltic Assembly

BAD*            African Development Bank, see AFDB                                                       

BADEA*        Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa, see ABEDA

BAP              Baltic Air Policing (March 2004, NATO)

BASIC Countries Brazil, South Africa, India, and China, see also BRIC

BBC              ASEAN Brand-to-Brand Complementation

BBC              Burma Border Consortium

BBNJ            biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction  

BCC             Bilateral Consultation Commission                                                     

BCEAO*        Central Bank of West African States                            

BCIE*           Central American Bank for Economic Integration (est. 13 Dec. 1960),  

                     also CABEI

BCIM            Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar economic corridor plan (23 Oct. 2013)

BDEAC*        Central African States Development Bank (est. 3 Dec. 1975)

BDF              Baltic Development Forum

BEAC           Barents Euro-Arctic Council (est. Jan 1993, formerly BSRC)

BECC           Border Environment Cooperation Commission (est. 1993, Mexico-USA)

BECR           Black Sea Economic Cooperation Region                                          

BENELUX     Belgium-Netherlands-Luxembourg Economic Union, also BLEU

BFA              Basic Framework Agreement (Oct. 1994, ROK-DPRK-Japan-USA)

BFA              Boao Forum of Asia (China)                                                                  

BFTA            Baltic Free Trade Area (est. 1993)                                       

BIB               Board for International Broadcasting (USA)                                          

BIC               Bilateral Implementation Commission (START II)                                  

BID*              Inter-American Development Bank, see IADB                                        

BIE               Bureau of International Exhibitions                                  

BIMP-EAGA Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines-East Asian Growth Area (ADB)

BIMS            Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore

BIMST          Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Nepal   

BIMST-EC              Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Nepal          

                     Economic Cooperation (est. Dec. 1997)

BIMSTEC     Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation

BINUB#        UN Integrated Office in Burundi (est. 1 Jan. 2007), formerly ONUB, see          


BINUCA#      UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic, taken over by MINUSCA on 10 April 2014.

BINUH          UN Integrated Office in Haiti (est. 16 Oct.2019)

BIOT            British Indian Ocean Territory [Diego Garcia](UK)                            

BIS               Bank for International Settlements (est. 20 Jan. 1930)                               

BISTEC                  Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand Economic Cooperation

BLEU            Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, see BENELUX

BLS States   Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland

BMVC#                   Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Center (UNSCOM)

BNC             US-Mexico Binational Commission (est. 1981)

BNUB           UN Office in Burundi, replaced BINUB on 1 January 2011                        

BOAD*          West African Development Bank, see WADB

BONUCA*#   UN Peace-Building Office in the Central African Republic (Feb.

                     2000-Aporil 2014), formerly MINURCA, now MINUSCA

BP                Barcelona Process (EU)

BRI               Belt and Road Initiative (China), also B&R

BRIC States  Brazil, India, and China

BRICS States Brazil, India, China, and South Africa

BRITE          Basic Research in Industrial Technologies for Europe (EU)

BSE              Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease)

BSEC           Black Sea Economic Cooperation                    

BSECA                   Black Sea Economic Cooperation Area, see BSEC

BSECO         Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization (est. 1992)

BSECP                   Black Sea Economic Cooperation Project (started 1992)

BSRC#          Barents Sea Regional Council, now BEAC                                          

BTC              Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline project                                                      

BTWC           Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention                                          

BWC             Biological Weapons Convention (signed 1972, effective 1975)

BWC ISU      Biological Weapons Convention Implementation Support Unit (est. 8 Dec.                           2006, BWC)



C-20             Committee of 20 for International Monetary Reform (IMF)

C                  Commonwealth (renamed 22 Oct. 1949), formerly British Commonwealth      

                     of Nations

CAA              Conference of American Armies (est. 1960), also CEA

CAAA#          Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 (1986-11 July 1991, USA)

CABCD         Central Asian Bank for Cooperation and Development

CABEI          Central American Bank for Economic Integration, see BCIE

CABSI          Central Asia Border Security Initiative

CAC             Central Asian Cooperation Organization (est. 28 Feb. 2002), also CACO

CAC             Convention against Corruption (launched Dec. 2003)

CACO           Central Asian Cooperation Organization (est. 28 Feb. 2002), also CAC

CACM           Central American Common Market (est. 13 Dec. 1960)

CAE#            Central African Empire, see CAR                                                 

CAE*            East African Community, also EAC                                                      

CAEC           Central American Economic Community                            

CAEMC         Central African Economic and Monetary Community

CAEU#         Central Asian Economic Union, see OCAC

CAEU           Council of Arab Economic Unity (est. 3 June 1957, effective 30 May     


CAF*            Andean Development Bank

CAFE           Conventional Armed Forces in Europe treaty (replaced MBFR in March      

                     1989), see CFE

CAFTA          Central American Free Trade Agreement (US)

CAN*            Andean Community of Nations (renamed 1 Oct. 1992, formerly AG, GA)

CAP              Common Agricultural Policy (EU)                                   

CAR             Central African Republic, formerly CAE                                         

CAR             Central Asian Republics (USG)

CAREC#       Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation, see OCAC  

CARIBANK   Caribbean Development Bank

CARICC        Central Asian Regional Coordination and Information Center 

CARICOM    Caribbean Community and Common Market

CARIFORUM Caribbean Community and Common Market and Dominican Republic          

                     and Haiti

CARIFTA      Caribbean Free Trade Association

CARSI          Central America Regional Security Initiative                                 

CARU           Central Asian Regional Unit (Kazakhstan proposal)

CASA           Coordinating Action on Small Arms (1998, UN)

CAT              conventional arms transfer                                                 

CATF            Chemical Action Task Force (UNDCP)                                       

CAU             Central Asian Union                                             

CBCM*          Permanent Consultative Committee of the Maghreb

CBI               Caribbean Basin Initiative (USA)

CBI               Cross-Border Initiative (1992, ADB, EC, IMF)                                 

CBLT*           Lake Chad Basin Commission (est. 1964), also LCB

CBM             confidence-building measure                                           

CBRN           Caribbean Basin Radar Network [narcotics control]

CBSI             Caribbean Basin Security Initiative

CBSS           Council of Baltic Sea States (est. 5 Mar. 1992)                         

CC                central committee                                                 

CC                Consular Corps                                                              

CC#              Consular Commission [for Indonesia] (15 Aug. 1947-1952)

CCAMLR       Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (est. 1980)

CCAP           Climate Change Action Plan (UNFCCC)                                             

CCAQ           Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions (IAEA)

CCASG         Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, also GCC

CCC             Customs Cooperation Council (est. 15 Dec 1950), also WCO

CCCC*          Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN), see FCCC

CCCN           Convention on Nomenclature for the Classification of Goods in Custom    


CCD#           Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (till 1979, UN), see CDG,       


CCD             Convention to Combat Desertification (UNEP), also INCD

CCEAE                   Conference of Heads of State of Equatorial Africa

CCIA            COMESA Common Investment Area (COMESA)

CCIR            International Radio Consultative Committee                                   

CCJ              Caribbean Court of Justice (in Trinidad, est. 2003)                                

CCNAA#        Coordination Council for North American Affairs (1979-1994,           

                     ROC/Taiwan in USA), see TECRO                                  

CCPOQ                  Consultative Committee on Program and Operational Questions (IAEA)

CCTS           Cooperation Council of Turkish Speaking Countries

CD                composite dialog (India-Pakistan)                                                         

CD                Conference on Disarmament (UN) (est. 1979), also CDG

CD*              Diplomatic Corps                                                             

CD*              Danube Commission (est. 1949)                                                              

CDB             Caribbean Development Bank (est. 18 Oct. 1969)                              

CDE             Conference on Disarmament in Europe                                                  

CDG             Committee on Disarmament (UN), formerly CCD, see CD

CDI               Centrist Democratic International

CDM             Clean Development Mechanism (UNFCCC)

CDP             composite dialog process (India-Pakistan)                                                

CDS             Commission for Sustainable Development (UN)

CE                Council of Europe (est. 5 May 1949), also COE 

CE*               European Standard (conformité Européenne) (effective 1 Jan. 1995)

CEA#            Conference of American Armies, see CAA 

CEAC           Central Asian Economic Community                                                   

CEAC           Committee for European Air-Space Coordination

CEAF           Central Asian Economic Forum (since 5 Jan. 2001)

CEAO*          West African Economic Community, see ECOWAS

CEC             Central American Economic Council                                                  

CEC             Commission of the European Communities (EU)

CEC             Commission for Environmental Cooperation (NAFTA)

CEDEAO*     Economic Community of West African States (est. 28 May 1975), see      


CEDAW        Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against       

                     Women (1979)

CEDEFOP    European Center for the Development of Vocational Training

CEDP           Common European Defense Policy (EU)                                                  

CEE              Central and Eastern Europe (USG, EU, IMF)

CEEAC*        Economic Community of Central African States (est. 18 Oct. 1983),   

                     also ECCAS

CEEC           Central and Eastern European Countries (EU)                                 

CEEC#          Committee for European Economic Cooperation (1947-1960, forerunner     

                     of OECD)

CEFTA          Central European Free Trade Agreement (Area) (est. 21 Dec. 1992)   

                     (Viségrad Group)

CEG             Contact Expert Group (EU-USA)                                                   

CEI               Central European Initiative (est. 1992), succeeded Hexagonal Group

CELAC*        Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (July 2011)

CELADE*      Latin American Demographic Center (ECLAC)

CELEX*        European Community Laws [databank] (EU)                                

CELP*          Community of Portuguese-Language States (est. 1989)

CEMA*#        Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, also CMEA, COMECON

CEMAC*#               Economic and Monetary Union of Central Africa (est. 8 Dec. 1964),  

                     formerly UDEMAC), see ECCAS/CEEAC

CEN*            European Standardization Committee (est. 1961)

CEN-SAD#    Community of Sahel-Saharan States (est. 7 Sep. 1998), see COMESSA

CENTO#       Central Treaty Organization (24 Feb. 1955-Jan. 1979), formerly Baghdad


CEPA           Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (China)

CEPALC*      Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (est. 25 Feb.                          1948 as ECLA) (UN)

CEPGL*        Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries [Africa] (est. 26 Sep.         


CER             Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (Australia-NZ), also                


CERD           Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (4 Jan. 1959)

CERD           Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN)

CERF           Central Emergency Response Fund (est. 16 Dec. 2005, UN)

CERI            Center for Educational Research and Innovation (OECD)

CERN*          European Organization for Nuclear Research (formerly European Nuclear                        Research Council) (est. 1 July 1953)

CET              Common External Tariff (CARICOM) 

CETA           Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, EU-Canada

CFA*            African Financial Community (est. Apr. 1949), formerly FZ/CFA

CFA              Ceasefire Agreement

CFE              Conventional Armed Forces in Europe treaty (CSCE), also CAFE

CFE              cost-free expert (IAEA)                                      

CFIUS          Committee on Foreign Investment in the US                             

CFMM           Commonwealth Finance Ministers’ Meeting

CFSP           Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU)                   

CFTA            US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (est. 1 Jan. 1989), also FTA

CFTC           Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation

CG               Contact Group                                                             

CG#              Contadora Group, see RG                                                      

CGCED         Caribbean Group for Cooperation in Economic Development

CGDK           Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea

CGI              Consultative Group on Indonesia (est. 1992, replaced IGGI less               


CGIAR          Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

CGPCS        Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia

CHOGM        Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

CIAP*           Inter-American Committee on the Alliance for Progress

CICA            Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia

CICIG           International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (est. 12 Dec.


CICIG           Commission Investigating Corruption in Guatemala (CICIG) (2018)

CIDI              Council for Integral Development (OAS)                                    

CIEC#           Conference on International Economic Cooperation (Dec. 1975-3 June

                     1977), see G-8, G-19

CIESM*         International Commission for the Exploration of the Mediterranean (est.


CIFG            Counter-ISIL Finance Group (19-20 March 2015)

CIL               customary international law                                                  

CILSS*         [Permanent] Interstate Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel (est.        


CIO              Chairman in Office (OSCE)                                                     

CIPEC*         Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries

CIRP            Collective Intellectual Property Rights                                                

CIS               Commonwealth of Independent States (est. 8 Dec 1991), also SNG*

CISSA          Committee of Intelligence and Security Services of Africa (est. 2004, AU)

CITEL           Inter-American Commission on Telecommunications (OAS)

CITES          Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna      

                     and Flora (UNEP)

CJEC            Court of Justice of the European Communities (EU)

CLAN*          Latin American Community of Nations (est. Aug. 1991)

CLCS            Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (UN)

CLOS           Convention on the Law of the Sea, also LOS                     

CLRAE          Council of Europe Local and Regional Authorities of Europe

CMA             Common Monetary Area

CMAC           Cambodia Mines Action Center (UNDP)

CMAG           Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group                                   

CMEA#                   Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, also CEMA, COMECON

CMF#           Commonwealth Monitoring Force

CMO             chief military observer                                                                        

CMS             Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals          


CMTF           Civil-Military Task Force (SFOR)

CND             UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs

CNGO          Council of Non-Governmental Organizations (SADC)

CNMI            Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands

COARM        Conventional Arms Export Work Group (EU)

COCOM#      Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (22 Nov. 1949-18                         Dec. 1995), see TWA

CODEHUCA* Commission for the Defense of Human Rights in Central America

CODEL                   congressional delegation (USG)                                               

CODUN         Conventional Disarmament Work Group (EU)

COE             Council of Europe, see CE

COG             chief of government, also CoG 

COG             chief observer group                                                                           

COMECON# Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (25 Jan. 1949-28 June 1991),       

                     also CEMA, CMEA

COMESA      Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (est. 31 Oct. 2000),        

                     formerly TTA

COMESSA    Community of Sahel Saharan States (est. 7 Sep. 1998)

COMMIT       Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative Against Trafficking (est. 14 Dec.

                     2007, GMS)

COMSAT      Communications Satellite Corporation (USA), communications satellite

CONCAUSA Central American-United States of America Joint Accord

CONCAUSA* Conjunto Centroamericano-USA                                      

CONDECA*  Central American Defense Council (ODECA)

CONGO        Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations (UN)

COP3 COP5 Conference of the Parties to UNFCCC                                 

COP             conference of the parties (UN)                              

COPPAL*      Permanent Conference of Latin American Political Parties

COPUOS       Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN), also UNCOPUOS

COREPER*   Permanent Representatives Committee (EU)

COS             chief of state, chief of staff, also CoS

COSAC*       Conference of European Committees of National Parliament and the

                     European Parliament (EU)

COSP           Conference of states Parties

COST           European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research

COW            Committee of the Whole (UN)                                          

CP                Colombo Plan (est. 1 July 1951)                                           

CP                communist party

CPA#          Coalition Provisional Authority [in Iraq] (May 2003-28 June 2004

CPA              Comprehensive Peace Agreement

CPC*            Cadre Permanent de Concertacion (Independent Electoral Commission       

                     (Ivory Coast/Côte d’Ivoire)

CPC             Committee for Program and Coordination (UN)

CPC             Conflict Prevention Center (OSCE)

CPEC           China-Pakistan Economic Corridor

CPJ              Committee to Protect Journalists                             

CPLP*          Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (est. 17 July 1996), see       

                     also PALOPS

CPM             Common Minimum Program (Indian Government est. 27 May 2004)

CPMR           Conference of Peripheral Maritime Regions (1973, Saint-Malo)

CPMT           Civilian Protection Monitoring Team [in Sudan]

CPR             Chinese People’s Republic, also PRC

CPS              Peace and Security Council (AU)                              

CPSA           Comprehensive Political Settlement Agreement [in Cambodia] (proposed        

                     1991, UN)

CPSS*          South Pacific Permanent Commission

CPTTP         Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership

CRI               Islamic Chechen Republic Ichkeria (est. Nov. 1991)

CRIC            Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention   


CROP           Council of Regional Organizations in the Pacific

CSBM           confidence- and security-building measures                             

CSC             Commonwealth Science Council

CSCA           Conference on Security and Cooperation in Asia (1994, initiated by   


CSCAP                   Council for Security Cooperation in Asia-Pacific (est. 1993)

CSCE#          Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (1 Aug. 1975-31 Dec.

                     1994), see OSCE

CSCM           Conference on Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean                  


CSD             Commission on Sustainable Development (UN)

CSDP           Common Security and Defense Policy (EU)

CSFR#          Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (formerly CSSR), see CZR, SR

CSIRO          Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization

CSMCA         Conference on Security and Measures of Confidence in Asia (27 Oct.          

                     1994 in Almaty)

CSME           Caribbean Single Market and Economy

CSN*            Community of South American Nations (est. Dec. 2004)

CSSR#          Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, see CSFR                              

CST              Conventional Stability Talks                                   

CSTO           Collective Security Treaty Organization (est. 14 May 1992), also ODKB

CSTP           Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (OECD)

CSW             Commission on the Status of Women                            

CTAG           Counter-Terrorism Action Group (G-8, est. 2 June 2003)

CTB              Comprehensive Test Ban                                             

CTBT            Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty                                         

CTBTO                   Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (est. 1996)

CTC              Counter-Terrorism Committee of the UN Security Council (est. 28 September 2001)

CTE              Committee on Trade and Environment (WTO)

CTED           Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (UN) (est. 2001)

CTI               Committee on Trade and Investment (APEC)

CTITF           Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (UN)                           

CTR              Cooperative Threat Reduction Program

CTSAMM      Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism

                      (UN, IGAD)

CVD             controversial countervailing duties USG)

CVID            complete, verifiable, irreversible dismantlement [of nuclear program]    


CWC            Chemical Weapons’ Convention                                           

CWFZ           chemical weapon-free zone                                               

CZ#              Canal Zone [of Panama] (US control ended on 31 Dec. 1999)

CZR              Czech Republic

COG             chief observer group

CPA              comprehensive

CPMT           Civilian Protection Monitoring Team [in Sudan]



D8                Developing Eight/[Islamic] Organization for Economic Cooperation

                     (est. 15 June 1997)

DAC             Development Assistance Committee (OECD)

DC                Danube Commission (est. 18 Aug. 1948)                                   

DC                developed country (USG)

DCM             deputy chief of [diplomatic] mission (USG)

DDPD           Doha Document for Peace in Darfur(14 July 2012)                               

DDSMS         UN Department of Development Support and Management Services

DK#              Democratic Kampuchea

DOMREP#    Mission of the Secretary General in the Dominican Republic (1965-1966)

DOP             Declaration of Principles (Sep 1993, Israeli-Palestine settlement)

DPC             Defense Planning Committee (NATO)

DPKO           Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UN)

DPRK           Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)

DR                Democratic Republic of Congo, also DRC DROC

DRA#            Democratic Republic of Afghanistan                                            

DRC             Democratic Republic of Congo, also DR DROC

DROC           Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), also DR DRC

DRV#            Democratic Republic of Viet Nam (North Viet Nam)

DSB              Dispute Settlement Body (WTO)  

DST              Defense and Space Talks                                                                

DTG             date-time group



E3+3             Political Directors for Iranian nuclear program of China, France,                  

                     Germany, Russia, United Kingdom, and the United States of America   


E6                Special Envoys for Sudan of China, European Union, France, Russia,

                     United Kingdom, and the United States of America) (2009)

EA                East Asia (USG)                                                      

EAC              East African Community (est. 1 Dec. 1967), formerly EASCO

EACASI        East Asia Strategy Initiative (ASEAN)   

EACU           East African Customs Union (est. 1 Jan. 2005)                  

EADB           East African Development Bank (est. 6 June 1967)

EAEC           East Asia Economic Caucus (Dec. 1990, proposed by Malaysia to  

                     counter Australia)

EAEC#          Eurasian Economic Community (est. 10 Oct. 2000-1 Jan. 2015), also EurAsEC, see EEC

EAEG           East Asia Economic Grouping (proposed Apr 1991)(ESCAP)

EAEU           Eurasian Economic Union, also EEU

EAGA           East ASEAN Growth Area                                             

EAGGF         European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund (EU)

EAI               Enterprise for the Americas Initiative (proposed 1990)(USA)

EALA            East Africa and Lake Victoria

EALA            East African Legislative Assembly                                                 

EAMA*          African States associated with EEC                             

EAP              East Asia and the Pacific (USG)                                           

EAPC           Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (est. 30 May 1997), formerly NACC

EAS              East Asian Summit (ASEAN)

EAS              Eurasian Union (proposed 1964 by Kazakhstan)

EASF            East African Standby Force (AU, December 2015)                

EASCO#       East African Common Services Organisation (1961-1967), see EACASI

EATCHIP      European Air Traffic Control Harmonization and Integration Program

EAU              UN Electoral Assistance Unit

EBA              European Banking Authority (EU) (est. Nov. 2010), see ESA

EBRD           European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (est. 15 Apr. 1991)

EC                European Community/Communities                                                  

EC ‘92#         European Economic Integration in 1992 (EU)

ECA              Economic Commission for Africa (est. 29 Apr. 1958, UN)

ECAC           European Civil Aviation Commission/Conference

ECAFE#        Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, see ESCAP

ECB              European Central Bank (est. July 1998)                                  

ECC             Economic Coordinating Committee (ASEAN)

ECCA#          East Caribbean Currency Authority, now ECCB

ECCAS         Economic Community of Central African States (est. 18 Oct. 1983),   

                     also CEEAC

ECCB           East Caribbean Central Bank (St. Kitts, formerly ECCA)

ECCM#         East Caribbean Common Market (now part of OECS)

ECDC           Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries

ECE              Economic Commission for Europe (est. 28 Mar. 1947, UN)

ECFA           Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement [between People’s                 

                     Republic of China and Republic of China, tentative]

ECG             Energy Coordinating Group                                              

ECHO           European Community Humanitarian Office                                 

ECHR           European Court for Human Rights (est. 20 Apr. 1959)

ECI               European Citizens’ Initiative (EU) (est. 15 Dec. 2010)

ECJ              European Court of Justice (EU)                                        

ECLA#          Economic Commission for Latin America (UN), see ECLAC

ECLAC          Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (est. 25 Feb.

                     1948 as ECLA, UN), also CEPALC

ECM             enhanced consultative mechanism

ECMM#         European Community Monitoring Mission [in Croatia] (est. 1991) see       


ECO             Monetary unit of the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) (planned)

ECO             Economic Cooperation Organization (est. 29 Jan. 1985), formerly RCD

ECO#           European Coal Organization (est. 18 May 1945, later ECSC)

ECOFIN        EC Council of Economic Ministers (EU) 

ECOMICI                ECOWAS Mission in Côte d’Ivoire (est. Jan. 2003)

ECOMIL#      ECOWAS Mission In Liberia (15 Aug. 2003-19 Sep. 2003, see UNMIL

ECOMOG     ECOWAS Cease-Fire Monitoring Group (in Liberia, 1990)

ECOMSA#    European Community Observer Mission in South Africa (EU)

ECONAD                economic adviser                                             

ECOSOC      Economic and Social Council (est. 26 Jun 1945, UN)

ECOWAS     Economic Community of West African States (est. 28 May 1975), also      


ECPC           European Communist Party Conference

ECR             European Conservatives and Reformists (EP)

ECRI            European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance

ECSC#          European Coal and Steel Community (est. 23 July 1952-23 July 2002),         

                     see EU

ECU             European Currency Unit (EU)                                    

ECWA#         Economic Commission for Western Asia (UN), see ESCWA

EDC#            European Defense Community (est. 1952, rejected 1954)

EDC             European Disarmament Conference

EDF              European Development Fund   

EDGE           Enhancing Development and Growth through Energy (US)

EDIDP          European Defense Industrial Development Program (EU)

EDRC           Economic Development Review Committee (OECD)

EE                Eastern Europe (USG)                                               

EEA              European Economic Area (EU), also EES

EEA              European Environmental Agency (est. 1990)

EEAC           European Economic Area Council (EU)

EEAS           European External Action Service (EU)                     

EEB              European Environmental Bureau

EEBC           Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission

EEC              Eurasian Economic Community, formerly EurAsEc,

EEC#            European Economic Community (Common Market) (est. 1 Jan. 1958-7         

                     Feb. 1992), see EU

EEFSU                   Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union (USG)

EEI               European Intervention Initiative (June 2018)

EEIG            European Economic Interest Grouping (EU; also EWIV#, GEIE*)

EES              European Economic Space (EU), also EEA

EEU              Eurasian Economic Union, also EAEU                       

EEZ              Exclusive Economic Zone (LOS)

EFD              Europe of Freedom and Democracy

EFGP/EPG   European Federation of Green Parties (EP)                                         

EFRD           European Fund for Regional Development (EU)

EFSF            European Financial Stability Facility (EU)

EFTA            European Free Trade Association (est. 4 Jan. 1960)

EGF             European Gendarmerie Force

EIB               European Investment Bank (est. 25 Mar. 1957, EU)

EIOPA          European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EU) (est. Nov.                         2010) see ESA

ELDO           European [Space Vehicle] Launcher Development Organization

EMA             European Monetary Agreement (replaced EPU) (OEEC)

EMBOFF       embassy officer (USG)                                          

EMI              European Monetary Institute (EU)

EMP             European Mediterranean Partnership (EU)

EMPA           European Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly (EU)

EMS             European Monetary System                                                 

EMU             European Monetary Union (est. 1 Jan. 2002)                                

EN                European Norm 

ENISA          European Union Agency for Network and Information Security     

ENMOD         Convention on the Prohibition of Military Use of Environmental                   

                     Modification Techniques

ENP              European Neighborhood Policy (EU)

ENTENTE     Benin-Burkina Faso-Ivory Coast-Niger-Togo political-economic     


EOSG           Executive Office of the Secretary General (UN)

EP                European Parliament (EU)                                             

EPC              Economic Policy Committee (OECD)                            

EPC              European Political Cooperation (EU)                          

EPCI             Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative (effective Feb. 1991)

EPG             eminent persons group (APEC)                                     

EPO             European Patent Office

EPP              European People’s Party (EP)                                                  

EPU#            European Payments Union (OEEC), see EMA

ERDF           European Regional Development Fund                                

ERM2           New Exchange Rate Mechanism (est. Jan. 1999, EU)

ERM             Exchange Rate Mechanism (EU)

ESA              European Space Agency (est. 31 July 1973)                                

ESA              European System of Accounts

ESA              European Supervision Authorities (est. Nov. 2010), see EBA, EIOPA, and


ESAF            Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (IBRD)                          

ESSAAMLG  Eastern and Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group (est. Nov.     


ESCAP                   Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (est. 28 Mar.          

                     1947 as ECAFE, UN)

ESCB           European System of Central Banks                                           

ESCWA         Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (est. 9 Aug. 1973 as       

                     ECWA, UN)

ESDI             European Security and Defense Identity (EUESF European Social Fund       


ESF              European Science Foundation (est. 1974)                            

ESF              Exchange Stabilization Fund (US Treasury)               

ESLA*           Latin American Economic System, also LAES, SELA

ESM             European Stability Mechanism (EU)

ESMA           European Security and Market Authority (EU) (est. Nov. 2010), see ESA

ESO             European Southern Observatory [in Chile] (est. 1962)

ESOC           European Space Operations Center (EU)                     

ESPRIT                  European Strategic Program for R&D in Information Technologies (EU)

ESRO           European Space Research Organization             

ESTEC                   European Space Research and Technology Center (EU)

EU                Europe (USG)                                            

EU                European Union (est.7 Feb. 1992), formerly EEC


 SOUTH SUDAN# EU Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan (Feb. 2013-

                     Jan. 2014)

EUBAM Libya EU Border Assistance Mission to Libya

EUBAM        EU Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (est. 1 Dec. 2005)

EUBAM-Rafah EU Border Assistance Mission at the Rafah Crossing Point (est. 25 Nov.


EUCAP NESTOR# EU Regional Maritime Capacity Building for the Horn of Africa and

                      the Western Indian Ocean (16 July 2012-28 Feb. 2017), renamed EUCAP


EUCAP SAHEL NIGER EU Capacity Building in Niger (est. July 2012)

EUCAP Somalia EU Capacity Building in Somalia, formerly EUCAP NESTOR (1 Mar.


EUFOR Althea EU Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (est. 1 Dec. 2004)

EUFOR Concordia# EU Military Operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of

                      Macedonia (31 March 2003-15 Dec. 2003)

EUFORTChad/RCA# EU Military Bridging Operation in Chad and the Central African

                      Republic (17 Mar. 2008-15 Mar. 2009)

EUFOR Libya EU# Military Operation in Libya (May 2013)

EUFOR RD Congo# EU Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (12

                      June 2006- 30 Nov. 2006)

EUGENDFOR EU Gendarmerie Forces (EU)

EUJUST LEX# EU Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq (1 July 2005-31 Dec. 2013).

EUJUST THEMIS# EU Rule of Law Mission in Georgia (16 July 2004-14 July 2005)

EUL-NGL      European United Left–Nordic Green Left (EP)

EULEX         EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (est. 9 Dec. 2008)                     

EUMC           EU Military Committee (EU)

EUMM#         EU Monitoring Mission [in Croatia] (est. 1991)

EUMM                    EU Monitoring Mission [in Georgia] (est. 1 Oct. 2008)

EUMM ARTEMIS# EU Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (12 June

                     2003-1 Sep. 2003), see EUFOR RD Congo

EUMS           EU Military Staff (EU)
EUNAVFOR  EU Naval Force Med [Mediterranean] (27 July 2015)

EUNAVFOR  EU Naval Force [Somalia] (est. 5 Nov. 2008)

EUPAT#       EU Police Advisory Team in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

                     (15 Dec. 2005-14 June 2006)

EUPM/BiH#   EU Police Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina] (est. 1 Jan. 2003-30 June

                     2012), formerly IPTF, UNMIBH

EUPOL         EU Police Mission

EUPOL Afghanistan EU Police Mission to Afghanistan (est. 15 June 2007)

EUPOL COPPS EU Coordinating Office for Palestinian Police Support (est. 1 Jan.


EUPOL Kinshasa# EU Police Mission in Kinshasa (DROC)(12 Apr. 2005-30 June 2007)

EUPOL PROXIMA/FYROM# EU Police Mission in the Former Yugoslav Republic of

                       Macedonia (15 Dec. 2003-14 Dec. 2005)

EUPOL RD C EU Police Mission for the Democratic Republic of Congo (est. 1 July


EURAM         European Advanced Materials Research Program (EU)

EurAsEC#     Eurasian Economic Community, see EEC, also EAEC, EURASEC (2000-


EURATOM#  European Atomic Energy Community (est. 25 Mar. 1957), see EU

EURCO         European Composite Unit                             

EUREKA       European Research Coordination Agency (EU) (est. 1985)

EURO           Monetary unit of the European Union

EUROCONTROL European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (est. 1960)

EUROJUST  European Justice Office (est. Oct. 1999)

EUROMED   Barcelona Initiative for the Mediterranean Countries (EU), see also UPM EUROPOL    European Police Office (EU)

EUSEC-RDC EU Advisory and Assistance Mission for Security Reform in the           

                     Democratic Republic of Congo (est. 8 June 2005)                                       

EUROSTAT  Statistical Office of the European Union

EUSBSR       EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (June 2014)                         

EUSE           EU Special Envoy

EUSR           EU Special Representative

EUSSR G-B# EU Mission in Support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau (22

                      Feb. 2008-30 Sep. 2010)                                   

EUTELSAT   European Organization of Telecommunications by Satellite

EUTM           EU Training Mission [Somalia] (est. Mar. 2010)

EUTM Mali    EU Mali Training Mission (est. 18 Feb. 2013)

EUTM RCA   EU Military Training Mission in the Central African Republic (Est. 16 July


EVM             electronic voting machine (India)

EWAC#         Europe-West Africa Maritime Conference (dissolved on 16 May 1995)

EWS             European Works Council (mandated in 1994 for multinational firms, EU)



FAO             Food and Agriculture Organization (est. 16 Oct. 1945, UN)

FATA            Federally Administered Tribal Area(s) (Pakistan)

FATF            Financial Action Task Force (UNDCP)

FC                Joint Force (Force Conjoint) of G5 SAHEL

FC-G5S         Joint Force (Force Conjoint) of G5 SAHEL

FCCC           Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN), also CCCC

FCN              Friendship, Commerce and Navigation (agreement)

FCO             Foreign and Commonwealth Office (UK)                                 

FCS              Foreign Commercial Service (USG)                                       

FEEM           Forum Economic Ministers Meeting (SPF)                                        

FEEP            Food, Energy, Environment, Economic Growth and Population project   


FEOGA         European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund

FGEC           Forum of Gas Exporting Countries, see also GECF

FGI               foreign government information (USG)

FGM             female genital mutilation (UN)

FGM/C         female genital mutilation/cutting (UN)                                 

FIDH*           International Federation for Human Rights (est. 1922)

FIFG             Financing Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (EU)              

FLS#            Front Line States [Southern Africa]                                  

FM                foreign ministry, foreign minister                                  

FMCT           Fissile-Material Cut-Off Treaty (proposed May 1995, UN)

FMSC           Forum Ministerial Standing Committee (PIF)

FO                Foreign Office (UK)                                                      

FOC             flags of convenience [ship registration]

FOCAC         Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (10 Oct. 2000)

FOROMED   Mediterranean Forum (est. 1994)

FORPRONU* UN Protection Force (in Yugoslavia, approved 21 Feb. 1992)

FPDA           Five Power Military Arrangement (est. 1971 by Australia, Malaysia, NZ,         

                     Singapore, UK)

FPDSA         Forum for the Progress of South America, also PROSUL, PROSUR

FRA              Fundamental Rights Agency (est. 1 Mar. 2007, EU)

FRG             Federal Republic of Germany

FRONTEX    European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the  

                     External Borders of the European Union

FRY#            Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (succeeded SFRY)

FSC              Forum for Security Cooperation (OSCE)                           

FSM             Federated States of Micronesia                                      

FSN              foreign state national (USG)                                        

FSO             Foreign Service Officer (USG)                                                            

FSO             Fund for Special Operations (IDB)                    

FSU              former Soviet Union (USG)                                           

FTA              US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (est. 1 Jan. 1989), also CFTA

FTAA            Free Trade Area of the Americas (announced 10 Dec 1994 in Miami FL)

FTAAP         Free Trade Area of Asia-Pacific

FTO              foreign terrorist organization (USG)             

FTT#            Free Territory of Trieste (1947-1954)

FUM             follow-up meeting (OSCE)                                        

FYROM         Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Greek, USG usage)

FZ/CFA#       Franc Zone/Franc of the French African Colonies (est. 9 Sep. 1939-25          

                     Dec. 1945), see CFA



G-2               Group of Two (Japan and United States, used since 1986)

G-3#             Group of Three (The “Big Three”) (1941-1945) (1941-1945).

G-3               Group of Three (est. est. 13 June 1994)

G-4              Group of Four candidates for UNSC seat (Brazil, Germany, India, and         


G-5 Countries China, India, Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa (since July 2009)

G5 SAHEL    Group of Five for the Sahel (est. 16 Feb. 2014)

G5S              Group of Five for the Sahel (est. 16 Feb. 2014)

G-5#             Group of Five (est. 22 Sep. 1985), became G-7, now G-8

G-6               Group of Six (-1995), formerly G-5, see G-7, G-8             

G-6               Group of Six (est. 22 May 1985)                                                   

G-7               Group of Seven (1995-17 May 1998), formerly G-5, see G-8

G-8               Group of Eight (est. 17 May 1998), formerly G-7                     

G-8#             Group of Eight (est. Dec. 1986) (Rio Group)                         

G-8               Group of Eight (Developed country participants of CIEC)

G-9               Group of Nine (European ad hoc group)                        

G-10             Group of Ten (est. Oct. 1962)                       

G-11             Group of 11 (Latin American debtors), (est. 22 June 1984), also             

                     Cartagena Group

G-15             Group of 15 (est. 9 Sep. 1989), see NAM             

G-19#           Group of 19 (Less-developed country participants of CIEC) (Oct. 1975-3

                     June 1977)

G-20             Group of 20 (Industrialized and “threshold” countries) (est. 16 Dec. 1999)

G-21             Nonaligned members of Conference on Disarmament (CD) (now 30          


G-24             Group of 24 (Third World representation in IMF) (est. Jan. 1972)

G-24             Group of 24 (est. 1 Aug. 1989), see OECD                                   

G-30             Group of 30 (Informal forum of bankers and economists on economic

                     problems) (est. 1979)

G-33             Group of 33 (Informal forum of economists from 13 countries on           

                     economic problems) (est. 1987)

G-77             Group of 77 (est. Oct. 1967)                                 

GA*#            Andean Group, also AG, now CAN                                      

GA                General Assembly (UN), also UNGA

GAB             General Arrangements to Borrow (G10)                                               

GATS           General Agreement on Trade in Services (WTO)

GATT#          General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (30 Oct. 1947-31 Dec. 1994),        

                     see WTO

GCC             Gulf Cooperation Council (est. 14 Feb. 1981), also CCASG

GCC#           Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission (USA-Russian Federation) (1994

GCD             general and complete disarmament (UN)                    

GCFCG         Gulf Crisis Financial Coordination Group                         

GCS             Geostationary Communications Satellite (WARC)

GCTF           Global Counterterrorism Forum (est. 22 Sep. 2011)

GDPR           General Data Protection Regulation (EU)

GDR#           German Democratic Republic [East Germany]

GECF           Gas Exporting Countries Forum, see also FGEC

GEF             Global Environment Facility (est. 1990) (IBRD)                  

GEMS           Global Environmental Monitoring System (IAEA)

GEO             Global Environmental Organization (proposed)                        

GFAP           General Framework Agreement for Peace (i.e., 1995 Dayton Peace         

                     Agreement) (Bosnia-Herzegovina)

GGCL           government-to-government communications link (NPT)

GIABA*         Intergovernmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa

GICNT          Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism

GIFA            Governing International Fisheries Agreement                        

GII                Global Information Infrastructure

GIIP              Global Initiative Information Portal (GICNT)                               

GIPME          Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment (IOC)

GLFC           Great Lakes Fishery Commission (Canada-USA)

GLOBE                   Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment

GLOSS                   Global Sea Level Observing System (IOC)                          

GM               Global Mechanism (UNEP)                                       

GMO            genetically modified organisms (EU)                      

GMT             Greenwich Mean Time                                       

GNG             Group for Negotiations on Goods (WTO)

GNS             Group for Negotiations on Services (WTO)                                 

Go                Government of ... (e.g., GoI Government of Italy)(USG)

GOC#           Good Offices Committee [to Indonesia] (1947-1949)

GONGO       Government-organized nongovernmental organization

GONT           Government of Taiwan                                                      

GPA             Government Procurement Agreement

GPPT           German Police Project Team [Afghanistan]                                        

GRID            Global Resource Information Database (UNEP)

GRULAC       Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (LOS)

GSP             Generalized System of Preferences                           

GUAM          Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova (est. Nov. 1997), see              

                     GUUAM, ODED

GUUAM#                Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova (est. Apr. 1999-   

                     2005), formerly GUAM



H5N1            see HPAI

HABITAT       UN Center for Human Settlements, see UNCHS

HALDE*        High Authority Against Discrimination and for Equality (FRANCE)

HCM             Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) (Vietnam)               

HCNM           High Commissioner of National Minorities (OSCE)

HG#              Hexagonal Group (est. July 1991)

HIPC            Highly Indebted Poor Country (IMF)

HIV               Human Immunodeficiency Virus (WHO), see AIDS                       

HK                Hong Kong                                               

HKSAR                   Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China)

HLED            High Level Economic Dialog

HLWG           High Level Working Group (CFE)

HM               His/Her Majesty(’s) (UK, Australia, Canada)

HPAI             Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1), also called bird flu (WHO)

HQ, Hq          headquarters

HRC             Human Rights Council (est. 15 Mar. 2006, UN, formerly UNCHR), see         


HRCC           Human Rights Coordination Center (Bosnia)

HRDDP         Human Rights Due Diligence Policy (UN)

HRW            Human Rights Watch



IACA             International Anti-Corruption Academy (UN-EU) (est. Sep. 2010)

IACHR          Inter-American Court on Human Rights (OAS)

IADB             Inter-American Defense Board                                             

IADB             Inter-American Development Bank (est. 8 Apr. 1959), also BID, IDB

IAEA             International Atomic Energy Agency (est. 26 Oct. 1956, UN)

IAG               Implementation and Assessment Group (GICNT)

IAHRC          Inter-American Human Rights Commission

IAIG              International Agency for Investment Guarantees (IMF)

IANEC          Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission

IAPF#           Inter-American Peace Force (1965-1966)                

IARC            International Agency for Research on Cancer 

IASC             International Arctic Science Committee (est. 1986)   

IATA             International Air Transport Association                       

IATP             International Association of Tungsten Producers          

IBA               International Bauxite Association

IBE               International Bureau of Education (UN)                     

IBEC#           International Bank for Economic Cooperation (est. 22 Oct. 1963, now       

                     Russian bank) (CEMA)

IBRD            International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (World Bank) (est.  

                     22 July 1944, UN)

IBWC            International Boundary and Water Commission (est. 1989, Mexico-USA)

IBWM           International Bureau of Weights and Measures (est. 1875)

ICAC            International Cotton Advisory Committee         

ICAO            International Civil Aviation Organization (est. 7 Dec. 1944, UN)

ICAPP          International Conference of Asian Political Parties (est. 2000) 

ICBL             International Campaign to Ban Landmines                                

ICC               International Chamber of Commerce (est. 1919)                 

ICC               International Computing Center (UN)

ICC               International Control Commission                                                               

ICC               International Criminal Court (est. 1 July 2002)                   

ICC               Inuit Circumpolar Conference (first 1980)

ICCAT          International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas

ICCM            International Counterterrorism and Countering Violent Extremism Capacity-

                      Building Clearinghouse Mechanism (GCTF) (21 September 2016)

ICG              International Somalia Contact Group

ICGL             International Contact Group on Liberia

ICGLR          International Conference on the Great Lakes Region                        

ICM#            International Civilian Mission to Haiti (1994)

ICCO            International Cocoa Council (est. 1973)                

ICCPR          International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (1966, UN)

ICCROM       International Center for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of  

                     Cultural Property (UNESCO)

ICEM#          International Committee for European Migration (est. 1951-1989), see     


ICES             International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (est. 1902)

ICESR          International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (UN)

ICFTU          International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (est. Dec. 1949)

ICFY             International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia

ICGLR          International Conference on the Great Lakes Region

ICI                Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (NATO)

ICJ               International Court of Justice (World Court) (est. 26 June 1945, UN)

ICJU             International Commission of Jurists, also ICJ                  

ICK#             International Conference on Kampuchea (UN)                      

ICNAF          International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries

ICO              International Coffee Organization (est. 1963

ICO              Islamic Conference Organization, see OIC                       

ICOM            International Census Observation Mission (EU/CE)

ICP               Individual Cooperation Program (NATO)

ICPD            International Conference on Population and Development (5-13 Sep.    

                     1994 in Cairo)

ICRC            International Committee of the Red Cross (est. 1863), see IRC,                 

                     LICROSS, LORCS, LRCS

ICRI              International Coral Reef Initiative                           

ICSC            International Civil Service Commission (UN)

ICSC#           International Commission for Supervision and Control [for Indo-China]  


ICSECA                  International Contributions for Scientific, Educational and Cultural              

                     Activities, formerly ICSOC

ICSEM          International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the               


ICSID           International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes

ICSID           International Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes      

                     between States and Nationals of other States

ICSOC#                  International Conventions and Scientific Organizations Contributions, now                      ICSECA

ICSU            International Council of Scientific Unions (est. 1919)               

ICTB             International Customs Tariff Bureau                      

ICTP             International Centre for Theoretical Physics (IAEA)      

ICTR             International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (UN)  

ICTY             International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (est. 1993, UN)

ICVA             International Council of Volunteer Agencies (est. 1962)

ICYFDC        Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialog and Cooperation (OIC)

IDA               International Development Association (est. 26 Jan. 1960; IBRD affiliate,          


IDB               Inter-American Development Bank, see IADB                         

IDB               Islamic Development Bank (est. 15 Dec. 1973)

IDEA             International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (est. 27

                     Feb. 1995)             

IDEC            International Drug Enforcement Conference

IDNDR          International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (est. 11 Dec. 1987,         


IDP               internally displaced person (refugee) (UNHCR)                      

IEA               International Energy Agency, (est. 15 Nov. 1974, OECD), see NEA

IEC               International Electrotechnical Commission                         

IEG               Investment Experts Group (APEC)                                

IFAD             International Fund for Agricultural Development (est. Nov. 1974, UN)

IFAS             International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (est. 26 Mar. 1993)

IFC               International Finance Corporation (est. 25 May 1955; IBRD affiliate, UN)

IFCTU#         International Federation of Christian Trade Unions, now WCL

IFI                international financial institution                                    

IFI                International Fund for Ireland

IFOR#          Implementation Force [Bosnia and Herzegovina] (till 20 Dec. 1996), see      


IFRB             International Frequency Registration Board (ITU)                  

IFRC             International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

IGAD            Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (renamed 21 Mar. 1996)

IGADD#                  Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (15 Jan.       

                     1986-21 Mar. 1996)

IGASOM#     IGAD Peace Support Mission to Somalia (2005)         

IGC              Intergovernmental Conference (EU)

IGC#             Interim Governing Council [in Iraq] (13 July 2003-1 June 2004]

IGCEMU                 Negotiating forum provided for by the Treaty of Rome (EU)

IGCP            International Geological Correlation Program (UNESCO)

IGGI#           Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia (1968-1992, IBDR), see CGI

IGO              international non-governmental organization (UN)                 

IHO              International Hydrographic Organization (est. 1919)       

IHP               International Hydrological Program (UNESCO)        

IIASA            International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis        

IIB#              International Investment Bank (est. 7 July 1970, now Russian bank)        


IIC                Inter-American Investment Corporation (IDB)            

IISS              International Institute for Strategic Studies (London)     

IKDBC          Iran-Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission (1991-93 UNSC Res.        


IKD               Inter-Korean Dialog                                                              

ILC               International Law Commission

ILMAC          Israel-Lebanon Mixed Armistice Commission              

ILMG            Israel-Lebanon Monitoring Group                          

ILO               International Labor Organization (est. 11 Apr. 1991, UN)       

ILSA             Iran Libya Sanctions Act (USA)                                      

ILZSG           International Lead and Zinc Study Group

IMB              International Maritime Bureau (ICC)

IMC              Arusha Implementation and Monitoring Committee

IMC              International Mediation Committee                        

IMC              International Mekong Commission                      

IMCO#          Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (UN), see IMO

IMEMO         Institute for the Study of the World Economy (Russia)

IMF               International Monetary Fund (UN)                

IMO              International Maritime Organization (est. 17 Mar. 1958; formerly IMCO,       

                     UN), see IMCO

IMP              Integrated Mediterranean Program (EU)            

IMS              Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore             

INC               intergovernmental negotiating committee (UN)       

INC-D           Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on Desertification (UNEP)

INCB            International Narcotics Control Board

INCD            Convention to Combat Desertification (UNEP), also CCD

INES             International Nuclear Event Scale (IAEA)       

INF               Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics           

INF               Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (1987 between USA and   


INFCE          international nuclear fuel cycle evaluation (IAEA)              

INFOTERRA Environmental Information Retrieval System (UNEP)

INKSNA        Iran, North Korea and Syria Nonproliferation Act (USG)

INMARSAT   International Maritime Satellite Organization (est. 3 Sep. 1976)

InOC             Indian Ocean Commission, also IOC                                 

INPFC          International North Pacific Fisheries Commission

INRO            International Natural Rubber Organization                               

INSTEX        Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (with Iran) (1 July 2019)

INSTRAW     International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of     

                     Women (UN)

INTECH                  Institute for New Technologies (UNU)                              

INTELSAT              International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (est. 20 Aug.


INTERCOSMOS Council on International Cooperation in the Study and Utilization of

                     Outer Space

INTERFET#  International Forces in East Timor                             

INTERPOL    International Criminal Police Organization (est. 13 June 1956)

IOC              Indian Ocean Commission (est. 21 Dec 1982), also InOC

IOC              Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (est. 1960, UNESCO)

IOC              International Olympic Committee (est. 23 June 1894)

IOLM            International Organization for Legal Metrology                              

IOM              International Organization for Migration (est. 5 Dec 1951) formerly IRO,         


IONARC        Indian Ocean National Association for Regional Cooperation (est. Mar.      


IOOC            International Olive Oil Council                                     

IOR              Indian Ocean Rim (1993, economic grouping proposed by South Africa)

IORA            Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (est. 6 Mar.  

                     1997), also IOR-ARC

IOR-ARC                Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (est. 6 Mar.   

                     1997), also IORA

IOZB            Indian Ocean Zone of Peace                                                

IPA               Interparliamentary Assembly (CIS)                           

IPCC            Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (WMO)

IPDC            Intergovernmental Program for the Development of Communication      


IPHC            International Pacific Halibut Commission                             

IPI                International Press Institute (est. 1951)                     

IPIC              International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (UNEP)

IPKF#           Indian Peace Keeping Forces [in Sri Lanka] (1987-1990)       

IPMT#          International Peace Monitoring Team [Solomon Islands]

IPR               intellectual property rights 

IPTF#           International Police Task Force [Bosnia and Herzegovina] (1995-2002),          

                     see EUPM

IPU               Interparliamentary Union                                         

IRC               International Red Cross, see ICRC, LICROSS, LORCS, LRCS

IRENA          International Renewable Energy Agency (est. 26 Jan. 2009, UN)

IRO#             International Refugee Organization (est. 20 Aug. 1946), see UNRRA,          


IRPTC          International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (UNEP)

IRSA             Indus River System Authority

ISAF             International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (20 Dec. 2001,        


IRSG            International Rubber Study Group

ISACS          International Small Arms Control Standards (UN)                            

ISBA             International Sea-Bed Authority (LOS)

ISF               International Stabilization Force 

ISFA             Interim Security Force for Abyei (AU-UN)                           

ISG               intersessional support group (ARF) 

ISG               International Steering Group (Kosovo)                                       

ISIRJC#        US-Iran Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation

ISM              intersessional support group meeting (ARF)                                  

ISMA            International Satellite Monitoring Agency                                   

ISMA            Israel-Syria Mixed Armistice Commission                         

ISO               International Organization for Standardization (est. Feb. 1947)

ISO               International Sugar Organization

ISSG            International Syria Support Group                                      

ISVA             International Satellite Verification Agency

IT                 information infrastructure

IT                 information technology                   

ITA               Information Technology Agreement (1997, APEC)

ITC               Independent Television Commission (UK)                                           

ITC               International Tin Council                                      

ITCB             International Textile and Clothing Bureau                   

ITF               International Trade Federations                                

ITIC              International Tsunami Information Center                            

ITP               International Trade Programs (UNCTAD)                      

ITP               Interim Trade Program for the Caribbean Basin Initiative

ITS               International Trade Secretariats                                    

ITSU             International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the      

                     Pacific (IOC)

ITC               Intergovernmental Typhoon Committee

ITGA#           Islamic Transitional Government of Afghanistan

ITTO             International Tropical Timber Organization (est. 1985)                   

ITU               International Telecommunications Union (est. 9 Dec. 1932, UN)

IUCN            International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IUS               International Union of Students

IWC              International Whaling Commission (est. 1946)                        

IWC              International Wheat Council (est. 1949)                           

IYF               International Year of the Family (1994, UN)



JAC              joint advisory committee (UN)

JBVMM         Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism [Abyei] (UN)

JCC              Jewish Claims Commission                                                 

JCC              Joint Civilian Commission (Bosnia)                                 

JCC              Joint Commercial Commission

JCC              Joint Control Commission Moldova Russia Transdniestr 

JCG              Joint Consultative Group (on compliance and disputes) (CFE)

JCIC             Joint Compliance & Inspection Commission (START I)

JCMB           Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board (UN Afghanistan)

JCPOA         Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (IAEA-Iran, 14 July 2015)

JIC               Joint Interim Commission (Bosnia)                                                 

JIM 1, 2#      Jakarta Informal Meeting [on Cambodia]

JCMB           Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board [for Afghanistan] (UN)

JIU               Joint Inspection Unit (UN)                                                  

JLG#            Joint Liaison Group [Hong Kong transition] (PRC, UK)

JMC#            OAU Joint Military Commission [in Angola] (1999-2002)

JMG             Joint Monitoring Group (SCO)                                                                   

JNRC            Joint Nuclear Research Center                                              

JPC              Joint Planning Committee (est. 27 Nov. 1978 by Japan and USA)

JPMC           Joint Political and Military Commission (Angola)

JPOA            joint plan of action, joint political plan of action

JPOG           Joint Performance and Oversight Group (PIF)

JPSM           Joint Political and Security Mechanism (South Sudan-Sudan)         

JRC              Joint Research Center (8 institutes in 4 countries, EU)

JUSSCANNZ non-European Union developed countries

JVMV#          Joint Verification and Monitoring Commission (Angola), see UNAVEM

JWG             joint working group



KDOM           Kosovo Diplomatic Observer (EU)                                                          

KEDO           Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (est. 9 May 1995 by                                Japan, ROK, USA)

KFOR           NATO Kosovo Force (est. June 1999)

KKK*            Corruption, Connection, Nepotism syndrome (Indonesia)

KKTC*          Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, see TRNC

KL                Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

KMS             CIS Collective Peacekeeping Forces in Georgia (est. June 1994)

KPCS           Kimberley Process Certification Scheme

KRG             Kurdistan Regional Government (Iraq)

KVM             Kosovo Verification Mission (EU)



LAES            Latin American Economic System (est. 17 Oct. 1975), also ESLA, SELA

LAFTA#                  Latin American Free Trade Association (est. 1960, now LAIA)

LAIA             Latin American Integration Association (replaced LAFTA on 12 Aug    

                     1980), also ALADI

LAS              League of Arab States (est. 22 Mar. 1945), also AL                            

LC                line of control [maintained by India in Kashmir], also LOC

LCB              Lake Chad Basin Commission, see CBLT

LECZ            low elevation coastal zone (UN)

LGA              Liptako Gourma Authority (Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger)

LGBT            lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons (UN)

LI                  Liberal International

LICROSS      League of Red Cross Societies, also ICRC, IRC, LORCS, LRCS

LLDC            landlocked developed country (UNOHRLDC)

LMC             Lancang-Mekong Cooperation (MRC)

LME              London Metals Exchange

LMI               Lower Mekong Initiative                                                      

LORCS                   League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (est. 5 May 1919), also                           ICRC, IRC, LRCS

LOS              Law of the Sea, also CLOS                                                       

LPDR            Lao People’s Democratic Republic [Laos]                                 

LRCS            League of Red Cross Societies, also ICRC, IRC, LICROSS

LTBT            Limited Test Ban Treaty




M-8               Group of Eight Muslim Nations, The Muslim Eight (proposed 22 Oct.   


MAB             Man and the Biosphere program (UNESCO)

MACCIH       Mission of Support Against Impunity and Corruption in Honduras, OAS

MAG             Mongolia Assistance Group (aid program)                          

MAI              Multilateral Agreement on Investment (OECD), also MIA

MAP             Membership Action Plan (NATO)

MAPA           Manila Action Plan (1966, APEC)

MAPE#                   Multinational Advisory Preparatory Elements [in Albania]        

MARPOL                Protocol relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of         

                     Pollution from Ships (1973)                        

MBFR#                   Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction talks, see CAFE

MC#             Mekong Commission (1957-5 Apr. 1995), see MRC

MCA             Millennium Challenge Account (USA)                    

MCM            Military Committee Meeting (UN)                           

MCPMR        Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management & Resolution (OAU)

MDG             UN Millennium Development Goals (2000)                                 

ME               Middle East                                                         

MEA             Multilateral Environment Agreement                      

MECU           Million European Currency Units (EU)                      

MEDA           Mediterranean European Development Assistance

MEF             Major Economies Forum (2009)

MEL              Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA)                                    

MENA           Middle East and North Africa                                

MEP             Member of European Parliament                                   

MEPFA                   Middle East Peace Facilitation Act (USA)                        

MEPP           Middle East Peace Process (unofficial)            

MERCOSUR* Common Market of the South/Southern Cone Common Market (est. 26       

                     Mar. 1991)

MERS           Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (coronavirus/CoV first reported 2012)

MEU             Middle East Union (Turkish model for regional cooperation between         

                     Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Turkey)

MFA             Ministry of Foreign Affairs                                                 

MFA             Multifibre Arrangement (ITCB)

MFN             Most favored nation [in tariff treatment]

MFO             Multinational Forces and Observers [in Sinai] (est. Apr. 1982)        

MIA              Multilateral Investment Agreement (OECD), also MAI

MICAH          International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (est. Mar. 2000)   

MICIVIH#      International Civilian Mission to Haiti (Feb. 1993-2000), see MICAH

MICOPAX     Multinational Forces of the Economic Community of Central African       

                     States in the Central African Republic and the Community of Sahelo-       

                     Saharan States         

MIF               Multilateral Investment Fund (Latin America and Caribbean)

MIF#             Multinational Interception Force (Yugoslavia)                          

MIGA            Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (est. 1988, IBRD affiliate)

MILOBS        military observer                                                                              

MINUCI#       UN Mission in Côte d’Ivoire (4 Feb. 2003-27 Feb. 2004), see UNOCI  

MINUGUA*# UN Verification Mission in Guatemala (20 Jan.-14 May 1997) 

MINUJUSTH UN Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (2017), replacing MINUSTAH        

MINURCA#   UN Mission in the Central African Republic (1998-2002), see BONUCA

MINURCAT# UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (25 Sep. 2007-31

                      Dec. 2010)                           

MINURSO*   UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (approved 28 Apr.   


MINUSCA     United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (est. 10 April 2014), absorbed MISCA

MINUSMA    UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (est. 25 April 2013)                        

MINUSTAH# UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (est. 30 Apr. 2004-15 Oct. 2017)                  

MIPONUH#   UN Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (1997-2000), see MICAH         

MISAB*         Inter-African Mission to Monitor the Implementation of the Bangui              

                     Agreement [Chad] (Jan. 1997)

MISCA#        African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic

                     (5 Dec. 2013-10 April 2014), see MINUSCA

MISSANG     Angolan Mission (bilateral)

MJTF            Multinational Joint Task Force (AU Nigeria)

MLA              Member of Legislative Assembly (state legislature) (India)

MNA             Member of National Assembly (provincial legislature) (Québec)

MNF#           Multi-National Force [Lebanon](20 Sep. 1982-May 1983)

MNF-I           Multi-National Force-Iraq          

MNNA           Major Non-NATO Ally (USG)

MOMEP#      Military Observer Mission Ecuador Peru (1995-1999)           

MONUA*#     UN Observer Mission in Angola (est. 1 July 1997, replaced UNAVEM)    

MONUC*#     UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (est. 30        

                     Nov. 1999), see MONUSCO

MONUSCO* UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of

                     Congo (est. 1 July 2010), formerly MONUC                 

MOP             Member of Protocol                                     

MOU             memorandum of understanding                               

MP               Member of Parliament

MPCC           Military Planning and Conduct Capability (EU) (est. 8 June 2017) 

MPFSEE       Multinational Peace Force Southeastern Europe (est. Sep. 1998)      

MPR#           Mongolian People’s Republic (now Mongolia)

MRC             Mekong River Commission (est. 5 Apr. 1995), formerly MC

MRU             Mano River Union [Africa] (est. 3 Oct. 1973)                        

MSA             Multilateral Steel Agreement                                 

MSAR           Macao Special Administrative Region (since 19 Dec. 1999, China)

MSC             Munich Security Conference

MSCHOA      Maritime Security Center Horn of Africa (EU)

MSF#           Doctors without Borders (Médecins Sans Frontières)

MSG             Melanesian Spearhead Group (est. 1988)                                                  

MSP             Member of Scottish Parliament 

MST             Multinational Supervisory Team (est. 1991 in Papua New Guinea)

MTA#            Military Technical Agreement (June 1999 between NATO and              


MTCR           Missile Technology Control Regime (est. 16 Apr. 1987 by G-7)

MTF             Maritime Task Force (UNIFIL) (Oct. 2006)

MVM             Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (UN)

MWL             Muslim World League (est. 1962)



N+N              Neutral and Nonaligned Nations

N-S               North-South                                                              

NAA              North Atlantic Assembly                                                       

NAALC          North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAFTA)

NALS            North American Leaders’ Summit

NAC             North Atlantic Council                                                    

NACB           Nonaligned Coordinating Bureau                                       

NACC#                   North Atlantic Cooperation Council (est. 20 Dec. 1991-30 May 1997), see


NADBank      North American Development Bank (est. 1994)

NAFTA          North America Free Trade Agreement (est. 1 Jan. 1989, Canada, Mexico,                          USA)

NAM             Nonaligned Movement (est. 15 June 1961)

NAP              National Action Program (UNDP)                                                  

NATO           North Atlantic Treaty Organization (est. 4 Apr. 1949), also OTAN

NB8              Nordic and Baltic countries

NBI              Nile Basin Initiative                                                            

NC                Nordic Council (est. 16 Mar. 1952)                                         

NCCT           non-cooperative country and territory (OECD FATF)

ND                Northern Dimension (19990 (EU)

NDWG          Nuclear Detection Working Group (GICNT)

NE                Near East (USG)                                                           

NEA              Nuclear Energy Agency (est. 1958, OECD), see also IEA

NEACD         Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialog (UoCal)                              

NEAT*          New Railroad Traverse of the Alps (Swiss project)

NED             National Endowment for Democracy (USA) 

NEFCO         Nordic Environment Finance Corporation

NEPAD                   New Partnership for African Development (2002)

NESA           Near East/South Asia (USG)                                             

NFEARCPF  New Framework for Enhanced Asian Regional Cooperation to Promote    

                     Financial Stability

NFWG          Nuclear Forensic Working Group (GICNT)

NFZ              Nuclear-Free Zone                                                

NGO             non-governmental organization                                              

NI                 Northern Ireland (UK)

NIB               Nordic Investment Bank (est. 4 Dec. 1975)                         

NIC               newly industrialized country (USG)                           

NIEO            New International Economic Order                                       

NII                National Information Infrastructure                           

NIS               Newly Independent States (former 15 Soviet Republics) (USG)

NKR             Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (est. 10 Sep. 1991)

NLL              Northern Limit Line (Korean Armistice)

NNA             neutral/nonaligned (USG)  

NMOG                    Neutral Military Observer Group (Rwanda, est. 1992)                    

NNSC           Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission for Korea (est. 1953)          

NNWS                    non-nuclear weapons state                                           

NOC             non-official cover [of intelligence officer] (USG)

NPDI            Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative

NPF#            Multinational Protection Force [Albania]

NPG             Nuclear Planning Group (est. 15 Dec. 1966) (NATO)

NPMS#                   non-participating Mediterranean States (OSCE), now PMS

NPT              Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty                                             

NRI               non-resident Indian (India)                                                   

NRRC           Nuclear Risk Reduction Center (est. 1987, USA, USSR)

NSA              Nuclear Safeguards Accord (IAEA)                                   

NSG             Nuclear Suppliers’ Group (London Suppliers’ Group) (est. 1974, NPT)

NSS              Nuclear Security Summit

NTA              New Transatlantic Agenda (EU-USA)

NTC              national transition council                             

NTI               national trial inspection (CD)                                             

NTM             national technical means (START)

NTM-I           NATO Training Mission-Iraq

NTR              normal trade relations                                              

NTT              East Nusa Tenggara (Indonesia)                                  

NTT              nuclear testing talks

NWFP#         North-West Frontier Province (Pakistan), now Khyber                                               Pakhtunkhwa  Province                 

NWFZ           nuclear weapons-free zone

NWS             nuclear weapon state                                                        

NYC             New York City (USA)



OAA             Osaka Action Agenda (APEC)                                                        

OAPEC         Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (est. 9 Jan. 1968)

OAS             Organization of American States (est. 30 Apr. 1948)                         

OATC*          Central Asian-Turkish Summit (est. 1992)                                    

OAU#           Organization of African Unity (25 May 1963-25 May 2001), see AU

OBE             overtaken by events (USG)                                                

OBNOVA*     Fund for the Reconstruction of the Former Yugoslavia

OBOR                     One Belt, One Road (China), also B&R, BRI

OCAC#         Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (2001-2010, formerly                  

                     OCEAEC, CAREC)

OCAM*#        Afro-Malagasy and Mauritanian Common Organization (dissolved 1985)

OCAS#                   Organization of Central American States, also ODECA (12 Dec 1962-      

                     1994), see SICA

OCEAEC      Organization of Central Asian Economic Community (1998-2001), see    


OCTS           overseas countries and territories (EU)             

ODA             official development assistance                                       

ODCCP         UN Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention

ODECA#       Organization of Central American States, also OCAS (12 Dec. 1962-   

                     1994), see SICA

ODED-GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development-GUAM, see

                     also GUAM (renamed 23 May 2006)

ODIHR          Office for Democratic Institutions & Human Rights (OSCE)

ODKB#                   Collective Security Treaty Organization, see CSTO

ODS             ozone-depleting substance (UNEP)                     

OECD           Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (est. 14 Dec.          


OECS           Organization of East Caribbean States (est. 18 Jun 1981)

OEEC#                   Organization for European Economic Cooperation (16 Apr. 1948-14 Dec.       

                     1960), see OECD

OERS           Organization of the Senegal Riparian States

OHCHR        Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN)                            

OHR             Office of High Commissioner (used especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina,          


OIC              Organization of Islamic Countries                         

OIC              Organization of the Islamic Conference (est. May 1971), also ICO

OIF*             Francophonie International Organization (est. 20 Mar. 1970)

OIU              Organization of Islamic Unity                 

OLADE*        Latin American Energy Organization

OLAF#          European Anti-Fraud Office (EU)

OMIB            OAU Mission in Burundi (est. Dec. 1993)                           

OMIC            OAU Observer Mission in the Comoros (est. Nov. 1997)            

OMIK            OSCE Mission in Kosovo (est. July 1999)              

OMVG*                   Gambia River Development Organization

OMVS*                   Organization for the Development of the Senegal River

ONU#           United Nations (UN)

ONUB*          UN Operation in Burundi (est. 21 May 2004)                      

ONUC*#        UN Operation in the Congo, see UNOC                             

ONUCA*#     UN Observer Group in Central America (1989-1992), see ONUSAL 

ONUMOZ#    UN Operation in Mozambique (1992-1994), see UNOMOZ             

ONUSAL*#    UN Observer Mission in El Salvador (1991-1995), also UNOSAL      

ONUV*#        UN Office of Verification in El Salvador                      

ONUVEH*#   UN Observer Mission for the Verification of the Elections in Haiti (1990-         

                     1991), also UNEVEH    

ONUVEN*#   UN Observer Mission for the Verification of the Elections in Nicaragua

                     (est. 1989)                                          

OPANAL*      Organization for the Prohibition of Nuclear Arms in Latin America and the                           Caribbean (est. 14 Feb. 1967)                     

OPCW                    Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (est. 29 Apr. 1997)

OPEC           Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (est. 14 Sep. 1960)

OSCC           Open Skies Consultative Commission                                    

OSCE           Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (est. 1 Jan. 1995),  

                     formerly CSCE

OSE             Office of Special Envoy (UN)

OSGAP         Office of the Secretary General for Afghanistan and Pakistan (1990), see         


OSPAAAL#   Afro-Asian-Latin American People’s Solidarity Organization, also AAPSO

OST             Outer Space Treaty

OT              overseas territory (UK)                                                                  

OTAN*          North Atlantic Treaty Organization, see NATO

OTCC           Overseas Territories Consultative Council (UK)

OTN#           Observer Team in Nigeria (1968-1970)

OVC             orphans and vulnerable children (UNICEF)



P5                Five permanent members of UN Security Council

P5+1             Five permanent members of UN Security Council and Germany

PA                Palestinian Authority                                                                

PA                Parliamentary Assembly

PABSEC       Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)

PACE           Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe

PACE           Parliamentary Assistance Commission of the Council of Europe (to vet        


PACT           Philippine-American Cooperation Talks                          

PAFTAD                 Pacific Trade and Development Conference

PAHO           Pan American Health Organization                                           

PAIC             Popular Arab and Islamic Conference (fundamentalist)

PALM2000    Pacific Islands Leaders’ Meeting in 2000                                     

PALOPS*      Portuguese-Speaking African Countries (est. 1979) see CPLP

PAO             Pan-African Parliament (AU)                                                

Parlacen*      Central American Parliament (est. 1991)                                     

PARLATINO* Latin American and Caribbean Parliament

PAU              Pan-American Union 

PBC              Peacebuilding Commission (est. 20 Dec. 2005, UN)

PBEC           Pacific Basin Economic Council                                            

PBF              Pacific Business Forum                                          

PC                Pacific Community, formerly South Pacific Commission, Pacific Islands        

                     Commission, see PIC, SPC, SPF                        

PCA              Panama Canal Authority                                                 

PCA              Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (EU)                               

PCA              Permanent Court of Arbitration (est. 1899)                                

PCA              Permanent Court of Arbitration (AU)

PCASED       Program for Coordination and Assistance on Security and Development   

                     (1999, ECOWAS)

PCC#            Paris Conference on Cambodia (1989), see PICC

PCC#            Political Consultative Committee (WP)                  

PCGG           Presidential Commission on Good Government (Philippines)

PCJ              Permanent Joint Council (NATO-Russia)                            

PDD             Partnership for Democracy and Development in Central America (OECD)

PDD             presidential decision directive (USG)                 

PDRE#          People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, see TGE

PDRK           People’s Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea)

PDRY#          People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen; now part of   

                     unified Republic of Yemen), see ROY                        

PECC           Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (est. 1980)                       

PEDCAR       Palestinian Council for Reconstruction and Development

PERMREP    permanent representative

PESCO         Permanent Structured Cooperation (EU, est. 11 December 2017)

PFO             Pacific Food Outlook (PECC)                                         

PFP PfP        Partnership for Peace program (NATO) (est. Jan. 1994)

PGE#           Provisional Government in Eritrea                                     

PHARE*        Program of Community Aid for Central and East European Countries          


PIC#             Pacific Islands Commission (formerly SPC), see PC

PIC               Peace Implementation Conference (1995, to implement Bosnia Peace         


PICC#           Paris International Conference on Cambodia, also PCC

PICTA                     Pacific Island Countries’ Trade Agreement

PIDF             Pacific Island Development Forum (est. 27 Oct. 2005)

PIF               Pacific Islands Forum (renamed 28 Oct. 2000), formerly SPF

PIFS             Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat

PIROF          Pacific Islands Regional Ocean Forum (PIF)                              

PJC              Permanent Joint Council (NATO-Russia)

PKO             peacekeeping operation (UN)                                                                    

PL                Latin American Parliament (est. 1964)

PLG              Pacific Leaders Group (est. 18 Nov. 2011)                                  

PM               Prime Minister                                                                  

PMC             Post-Ministerial Conference (ASEAN)

PMF             Peace Monitoring Force [Iraq Kurdistan] (Turkey, UK, US under Ankara          


PMG             Bougainville Peace Monitoring Group (est. May 1998)

PMO             Prime Minister’s Office (Canada, India)                 

PMS             Mediterranean Partner for Cooperation (OSCE, formerly NPMS)

PNA              Palestinian National Authority                      

PNE              peaceful nuclear explosion                                     

PNET           Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (1963)                       

PNG             Papua New Guinea                                                  

PNG             persona non grata                                         

PNTR           permanent normal trade relations                          

POCO           Political Committee (EU)                                       

POK  PoK               Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (India)/Northern Area (Pakistan), now Gilgit-


POLAD                   political adviser (USG)                        

POLARM                European Armaments Policy ad hoc group (EU)

POTAS         Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards

POTUS         President of the United States (USG)

PPB              Partnership for Peace in Burundi (2009)

PRA#            People’s Republic of Angola                                    

PRC             People’s Republic of China, also CPR                       

PRG             provisional revolutionary government                                 

PRK#            People’s Republic of Kampuchea [Cambodia]

PSC              Political and Security Committee (est. 10-11 Dec. 1999) (European              


PSC              Peace and Security Council (AU, est. Feb. 2003)          

PTA              Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa (1982-Dec.   

                     1994; now COMESA)

PTA              Primary Tungsten Association                                       

PTBT            Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963)                                        

PTC              Patent Cooperation Treaty (EU)                                     

PTT              post, telephone and telegraph                                             

PUAS           Postal Union of the Americas and Spain

PUOICM       Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (OIC)                          

PVO             private volunteer organization (UNHCR)                            

PWL             priority watch list (USA)



QA#              Quadripartite Agreement [on Berlin] 

QCG             Quadrilateral Coordination Group (Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, USA)

                     (11 January 2016)  

QMV             qualified majority voting (i.e., not requiring unanimity, EU)

Quad            Quadrilaterals (four largest members of WTO)                             

QUANGO      quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization (mainly UK)

QUELRO       Quantified Emission Limitation & Reduction Objectives (UNFCCC)



RAMSAR      Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

RAMSI#        Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (est. 24 July 2003-30 June 2017)

RASCOM      Regional African Satellite Communications System

RCA             Regional Cooperative Agreement (IAEA)

RCD#           Regional Cooperation for Development [Iran-Pakistan-Turkey] (1964-        

                     1979), see ECO

RCEP           Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (proposed Nov. 2012)

RDP             Resources for Development Programs (UNCTAD)

REACT                   Rapid Expert Assistance Cooperation Team (OSCE)

RECCA         Regional Economic Cooperation Conference on Afghanistan

REDWG        Regional Economic Development Working Group [Middle East](est. Oct         


REFSEE       Regional Economic Forum for Southeast Europe

Rengo*         Japanese Trade Union Confederation                              

RG               Rio Group (originally Contadora Group)                            

RHF              Right Honourable Friend (UK) 

RIIA              Royal Institute of International Affairs (UK)

RMWG         Response and Mitigation Working Group (GICNT)                        

RO               reporting officer (USG)                                        

ROA#           Republic of Afghanistan                                                  

ROC             Republic of China (Taiwan), also ROCOT            

ROCAP         Regional Office for Central America and Panama

ROCOT         Republic of China on Taiwan, also ROC         

ROK             Republic of Korea (South Korea)                        

ROY             Republic of Yemen, also PDRY, YAR 

RPF              Regional Protection Force, South Sudan                        

RS*               Republika Srpska (Serbian Republic in Bosnia and Herzegovina)

RSA              Republic of South Africa

RSF              Reporters without Borders

RSF              Rapid Support Forces                                                          

RSFSR#        Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (now Russian Federation)

RSK              Republic of Serb Krajina                                                     

RSS              Eastern Caribbean Regional Security System                        

RTA              regional trading arrangement                                     

RUD             reservations, understandings, and declarations (WTO)

RVN#            Republic of Viet Nam (former South Vietnam)



S&D              Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (EP)

S&T              science and technology (USG)                                                       

SA                South Asia (USG)                                                         

SAA              stabilization and association agreement (EU)                              

SAARC                   South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (est. 8 Dec. 1985)

SACB           Somalia Aid Coordination Body                                         

SACG#                   Senior Arms Control Group (1986, USG)

SACO#                   Special Action Committee on Okinawa (till Dec. 1996, Japan-USA)

SACT           Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (Norfolk VA USA, NATO)

SACU           Southern African Customs Union (est. 11 Dec. 1969)

SADC           Southern African Development Community (est. 17 Aug. 1992)

SADCC#       Southern African Development Coordination Conference (1 Apr. 1980-17      

                     Aug. 1992)

SADR           Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic [Western Sahara], also SDAR

SAFTA          South Asian Free Trade Area (planned for 2000, SAARC)

SALT#          Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, now START                     

SAM             Sanctions Assistance Monitoring Team  

SAMOA        SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (September 2014)

SANWFZ      South Asia Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone

SAP              Structural Adjustment Program (IMF)                                  

SAPTA          South Asian Preferential Trading Arrangement

SAR              Second Assessment Report (UNFCCC)                                           

SAR              Special Administrative Region (China: Hong Kong, Macao)

SAR              Syrian Arab Republic  

SARS           Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (WHO)

SATC           South Atlantic Territories Cooperation Forum (est. Nov. 2010C

SC                Security Council (UN)                                                          

SCC             Security Consultative Committee (est. 1969, Japan-USA)

SCC             Standing Consultative Committee (START)                                 

SCCC           Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

SCF              Sana’a Forum for Cooperation

SCM             Security Consultative Meeting

SCO             Shanghai Cooperation Organization (est. 15 June 2001)

SDAR           Saharan Democratic Arab Republic [Western Sahara], also SADR

SDBZ           Safe Demilitarized Border Zone (UN)

SDG             Sustainable Development Goals (UN)

SDGT           Specially Designated Global Terrorist (USG)

SDR             special drawing right (IMF)                                              

SEA              Southeast Asia (USG)                                                   

SEANWFZ    Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapons Free Zone

SEARCCT    Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (est. 2003)

SEATO#       Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (8 Sep. 1954-30 June 1977)

SEATRAD     Southeast Asia Tin Research and Development Centre (est. 1977)

SECI             Southeastern European Cooperative Initiative (EU) (est. 1966)

SEE              South Eastern Europe (EU, IMF)                                          

SEECP                   South Eastern Europe Cooperation Process (est. 1966)

SEED           Support for East European Democracy Act of 1989 (USA)

SEEI             South East Europe Initiative (EU, NATO)                               

SEF              Straits Exchange Foundation (1993, Taiwan)                   

SELA*           Latin American Economic System, also ESLA, LAES

SEMG                     Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group (UN)

SES              Single Economic Space

SEZ              special economic zone (China) 

SFOR#          NATO Stabilization Force [Bosnia and Herzegovina] (20 Dec. 1996-2

                     Dec. 2005), see IFOR

SFRY#          Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, now FRY

SG                Secretary General, also STG

SGBV           sexual and gender-based violence

SHIRBRIG    Standby High Readiness Brigade (est. 1999, UN)

SI                 Socialist International (est. 30 June 1951)

SIAP             Statistical Institute for Asia and the Pacific                   

SIC               Standard Industrial Classification (USA)                 

SICA*           Central American Economic Integration System (est. 1 Feb. 1993),  

                     replaced OCAS/ODECA, see SIECA

SIDS             small island developing state (UN)                                                 

SIECA          Secretariat for Economic Integration of Central America (SICA)

SII                Structural Impediments Initiative [Japan-USA]                               

SIPRI            Stockholm International Peace Research Institute            

SIS               Schengen Information System (police databank, EU)

SIS               Small Island State (UN)                                                          

SITC             Standard International Trade Classification                            

SLCG           Sierra Leone Contact Group (UN)                                                  

SLG              Senior Level Group (EU-USA)

SLMM           Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission

SMAF           Self-Reliance through Mutual Accountability Framework (UN Afghanistan)    

SMR             Southern Mediterranean Region (EU)                                          

SNG*            Commonwealth of Independent States, also CIS

SNGM          Standing NATO Maritime Group (NATO)

SOA             Summit of the Americas                                      

SOC             State of Cambodia                                              

SOM             senior officials’ meeting (APEC, ASEAN)

SOMA                     Status of Mission Agreement (UN)                      

SORT           Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (2002, Russia-US)

SPARTECA  South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement   


SPAW           Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (UNEP)               

SPC#            South Pacific Commission (6 Feb. 1947-23 May 1997), see PC, PIC

SPC#            Special Political Committee (MBFR) 

SPC              Standing Police Capacity, UN PKO                        

SPEC           South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation (est. 17 Apr. 1973, SPF)

SPF#            South Pacific Forum (5 Aug. 1971-6 Feb. 1998), see PIF, SIP

SPREP                   South Pacific Regional Environment Program (UNEP)

SPS              Committee on Sanitary & Phytosanitary Measures (WTO)

SPSP           Special Privatization and Restructuring Program (for Russia, G-7)

SR                Slovak Republic                                                  

SRF              Supplemental Reserve Facility (IMF) 

SRSG           Special Representative for the Secretary General (UN)

SRV              Socialist Republic of Viet Nam                     

SSOD           Special Session on Disarmament (UN)

SSR              Security Sector Reform (UN)                           

SSR#            Soviet Socialist Republic                                                 

SSSG           Sahel and Sahara States Grouping (Feb. 1998)                   

STACOM       satellite communication                                                      

START          Strategic Arms Reduction Talks, formerly SALT

STG             Secretary General, also SG

STL              Special Tribunal for Lebanon (UN)                                            

SU#              Soviet Union, also USSR

SUA              Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of

                     Maritime Navigation UN, 1988)                                           

SUMED         Suez-Mediterranean Pipeline                                                    

SWA             Southwest Asia (USG)                                              

SWA#           South-West Africa [now Namibia]

SWIFT          Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

SWPD          Southwest Pacific Dialog (est. 2002)



T&T              Trinidad and Tobago                                                           

TAA              Trade Adjustment Assistance (NAFTA)                                                 

TABD           Transatlantic Business Dialog (launched Nov. 1995, EU-USA)

TAC              ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Friendship (1976)                                   

TACIS          Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States (EU)

TAD*            Transatlantic Dialog                                             

TBVC           Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei [Southern Africa]

TC                Trusteeship Council (UN)                                                     

TCA*            Amazon Region Cooperation Treaty                                

TCC              Technical Coordination Committee (INFCE)(IAEA)

TCC              temporary council committee                        

TCF              Technical [Assistance and] Cooperation Fund (IAEA)

TCOG           Trilateral Coordination and Oversight Group (Japan ROK USA)

TCU              Transnational Crime Unit

TDB              Trade and Development Board (UNCTAD)

TDRA           Transitional Darfur Regional Authority (2016)                         

TEC#            Transitional Executive Council (1993-1994, South Africa)

TECRO         Taipei Economic & Cultural Representation Office (since 1994, Taiwan),       

                     formerly CCNAA

TEL              terrorist exclusion list (USG)                               

TEP              Transatlantic Economic Partnership (launched May 1998, EU-USA)

TF                task force 

TFA              Transitional Federal Assembly [of Somalia] 

TFF#            Task Force Fox [in Macedonia] (2001-2002) 

TFG              Transitional Federal Government [in Somalia]                      

TFSC#          Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, see TRNC                 

TGC             Tripartite Gold Commission (1945, France, UK, USA)

TGE             Transitional Government of Ethiopia, also PDRE

TGNU           Transitional Government of National Union [South Sudan]

TI                 Transparency International                     

TIAR             Inter-American Reciprocal Assistance Treaty (1947)

TICAD          Tokyo International Conference on African Development

TIFA             Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (USA)

TILF             trade and investment liberalization and facilitation (APEC)

TIPH             Temporary International Presence in Hebron (1 Feb. 1997, Denmark Italy                               Norway Sweden Switzerland Turkey)

TIR*              International Transport of Goods by Road (Europe)

TISA#           Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (June 2002)

TLC*             Free Trade Treaty (NAFTA)                                                 

TLE              treaty-limited equipment (CFE)                                                

TLI                treaty-limited item (CFE)

TMAF           Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework (Afghanistan, 8 July 2012)

TMB             Textiles Monitoring Board (WTO)

TMR             Transdniestrian Moldavian Republic (est. 2 Sep. 1990)

TNC              Trade Negotiation Commission (WTO)

TNG             Transitional National Government [of Somalia]                          

TPF              Trade Policy Forum (PECC)

TPP              Trans-Pacific Partnership (US withdrew on 23 January 2017)

TPS              temporary protection status (US immigrants)                     

TRA              Taiwan Relations Act (1979, USA)                                  

TRASEC       Eurasian Transport Sector                                      

TREVI          Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism, Violence International (EU)

TRIP             Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (WTO)

TRNC           Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (formerly TFSC), also KRTC

TS                Technical Secretariat (OPCW)

TSZ              Temporary Security Zone (UN)

TTA#            Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern African States (est.  

                     1982), see COMESA

TTBT            Threshold Test Ban Treaty (1974 between USA and USSR)

TTIP             Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (EU-US, est. 17 June


TTP#            Trans-Pacific Partnership, see CPTTP

TTPI             Trust Territories of Pacific Islands (formerly USA)                             

TUI               Trade Union International                                                

TWA             The Wassenaar Arrangement (est. 18 Dec. 1995), formerly COCOM, see                            WA

TWEA           Trading with-the-Enemy Act (USA)




UAE              United Arab Emirates                                                            

UAR#            United Arab Republic [Egypt], now ARE                                

UCAH           UN Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit

UCLAF*                  Antifraud Coordination Unit (EU)                                       

UDEAC*#      Central Africa Customs and Economic Union (1 Jan. 1966-1991), now     


UEAC*          Union of Central African States                                 

UEMDA*                 West African Economic and Monetary Union

UEMOA#                West African Economic and Monetary Union, see WAEMU

UFC              Uniting for Consensus (The Coffee Club), opposed to G-4 UNSC seats

UK                United Kingdom                                                

UMA*            Arab Maghreb Union, see AMU                                  

UMOA*                   West African Monetary Union (12 May 1962-10 Jan. 1994), see WAEMU

UN                United Nations (est. 26 June 1945)

UNAC           UN Convention against Corruption (31 Oct. 2003)

UNAMA         UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (est. 28 Mar. 2002), formerly       


UNAMET                UN Mission in East Timor

UNAMI          UN Mission in Iraq (est. 14 Aug. 2003)                              

UNAMIC#      UN Advance Mission in Cambodia (1991-1992) 

UNAMID       African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (est. 31 July


UNAMIR#      UN Assistance Mission to Rwanda (1993-1996)                          

UNAMSIL#    UN Mission in Sierra Leone (est. 22 Oct. 1999-Dec. 2005), see              


UNARDOL    UN Assistance for the Reconstruction and Development of Lebanon

UNASOG#    UN Aouzou Strip Observer Group (May-June 1994)                    

UNASUL*#    see UNASUR         

UNASUR*#   Union of South American Nations (est. 23 May 2008), also UNASUL

UNAVEM#              UN Angola Verification Mission (I 1989-1991, II 1991-1995, III 1995-June  

                     1997), see MONUA      

UNBRO         UN Border Relief Operation [in Cambodia]

UNC             United Nations Command [in South Korea]

UNCAC         UN Convention Against Corruption

UNCAT         UN Convention against Torture (December 1984)                                 

UNCC           UN Chief Coordinator of UN Peacekeeping Missions in the Middle East    

UNCC           UN Compensation Commission                                        

UNCD           UN Center for Disarmament                                              

UNCDF         UN Capital Development Fund

UNCED#       UN Conference on Environment and Development (June 1992 in Rio de        

                     Janeiro), see FCCC

UNCHR#       UN Commission on Human Rights, see HRC

UNCHS         UN Center for Human Settlements (HABITAT) (est. 12 Oct. 1978)

UNCI#          UN Commission for Indonesia (1949-1949)

UNCIP#                  UN Commission for India and Pakistan (1948-1951), see UNMOGIP 

UNCITRAL    UN Commission on International Trade Law

UNCIVPOL    UN Civilian Police                                                             

UNCLOS       UN Conference on the Law of the Sea

UNCMAC      UN Command Military Armistice Commission [in Korea] (est. 1953)

UNCOPUOS  UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, also COPUOS

UNCRO#       UN Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (1995-1956) 

UNCT           UN Country Team (UNDP)                                                  

UNCTAD       UN Conference on Trade and Development (est. 30 Dec. 1964)

UNCURK#     UN Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea (1951-

                      Sep. 1973)

UNDAF         UN Development Assistance Framework

UNDC           UN Disarmament Commission                                                    

UNDCP         UN International Drug Control Program                                    

UNDHA         UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs

UNDOC        UN Office on Drugs and Crime

UNDOF         UN Disengagement Observer Force (approved 31 Mar. 1974, deployed       

                     on Golan Heights, Syria)     

UNDP           UN Development Program (est. 22 Nov. 1965)

UNDRO        UN Disaster Relief Organization                                      

UNDUGO      Grouping of Nile Basin Countries

UNEF#          UN Emergency Force in Sinai (I 1956-1967; II 1973-1979)                    

UNEP           UN Environmental Program (est. 15 Dec. 1972)

UNEPTSA     UN Educational and Training Program for Southern Africa

UNESCO       UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (est. 16 Nov. 1945)

UNEVEH#     UN Observer Mission for the Verification of the Elections in Haiti (1990-         

                     1991), also ONUVEH                                       

UNFCCC       UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (adopted 1992 in Rio de        

                     Janeiro), also CCCC                                      

UNFDAC       UN Fund for Drug Abuse Control

UNFICYP      UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (approved 4 Mar. 1964)                  

UNFPA                   UN Fund for Population Activities, now UN Population Fund (est. July


UNGA           UN General Assembly (est. 26 June 1945), also GA

UNGASS      UN General Assembly on Sustainable Development

UNGOMAP# UN Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1988-1990), see    


UNHCR         UN High Commissioner for Refugees (est. 3 Dec. 1949)

UNHRC        UN Human Rights Council (est. 15 Mar. 2006, UN, formerly UNCHR)

UNHQ           UN Headquarters                                              

UNIC            UN Information Center                                     

UNICEF                  UN Children’s International Emergency Fund, now UN Children’s Fund

                     (est. 11 Dec. 1946)

UNICRI         UN Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute

UNIDCP        UN International Drug Control Program                

UNIDIR         UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UN)             

UNIDO          UN Industrial Development Organization (est. 17 Nov. 1966)

UNIFEM        UN Development Fund for Women

UNIFIL          UN Interim Force in Lebanon (approved 19 March 1978)                     

UNIIMOG#    UN Iraq-Iran Military Observer Group (1988-1991)                     

UNIKOM#     UN Iraq-Kuwait Observation Commission (3 Apr. 1991-6 Oct. 2003)

UNIOGBIS    UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (2010)

UNIOSIL#     UN Integrated Office in Sierra Leone, see UNAMSIL, UNIPSIL 

UNIPOM#     UN India-Pakistan Observation Mission (1965-1966)

UNIPSIL#     UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone (2008-31 March

                      2014), see UNIOSIL  

UNIS            UN International School

UNISFA        UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (approved on 27 June 2011)

UNIT#           UN Inspection Teams in Iran and Iraq (1984-1988)                           

UNITAR                  UN Institute for Training and Research               

UNKRA         UN Korea Reconstruction Agency

UNMA           UN Mission in Angola

UNMAS        UN Mine Action Service                                                                           

UNMEE#       UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (est. July 2000-31 July 2008)

UNMHA        UN Mission to Support the Hodeidah Agreement (approved on16 January


UNMIBH#      UN Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-2002), see EUPM          

UNMIH#        UN Mission in Haiti (1993-1996)                                                                

UNMIK          UN Interim Administration in Kosovo (est. June 1999)        

UNMIL          UN Mission in Liberia (est. 19 Sep. 2003)

UNMIN#        UN Mission in Nepal (23 Jan. 2007-14 Jan. 2011)                   

UNMIOH       UN Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina                         

UNMISET               UN Mission in Support of East Timor (est. May 2002-Aug. 2006), formerly

                     UNTAET, see UNMIT

UNMISS#     UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (until 9 July 2011, replaced by UNISFA)

UNMIT          UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (est. Aug. 2006), formerly                  


UNMO                    UN military observer                                                                           

UNMOGIP     UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (approved 21 Apr.   


UNMOP#       UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (1996-2002)                            

UNMOT#       UN Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (1994-2000)                   

UNMOVIC#   UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission [in Iraq] (est.

                     Jan. 2000-29 June 2007), see UNSCOM  

UNOA#                   UN Office in Angola (1999-2002), see UNMA  

UNOC#         UN Operation in the Congo (1960-1964), also ONUC                  

UNOCHA      UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance to                    


UNOCI          UN Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (est. 27 Feb. 2004), formerly MINUCI

UNODC        UN Office on Drugs and Crime  

UNOG          UN Office at Geneva

UNOGBIS#   UN Peace-Building Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (1999-2010), see  UNIOGBIS         

UNOGIL#      UN Observation Group in Lebanon (June 1958-Dec. 1958) 

UNOHRLDC UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries

UNOMB        UN Observer Mission in Bougainville (est. 2001-June 2005

UNOMIG       UN Observer Mission in Georgia (est. Aug. 1993)                    

UNOMIL#      UN Observer Mission in Liberia (Sep. 1993-Sep. 1997)                

UNOMOZ#    UN Operation in Mozambique (1992-1994), also ONUMOZ

UNOMUR#    UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (1993-1994)                              

UNOMSA#    UN Observer Mission in South Africa (July 1992—May 1994)          

UNOMSIL#             UN Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (13 July 1998-22 Oct. 1999)            

UNON           UN Office at Nairobi

UNOSAL#     UN Observer Mission in El Salvador (1991-1995), see ONUSAL            

UNOSGI                 UN Office of the Secretary General in Iran/Iraq

UNOSEK      UN Office of the Special Envoy for Kosovo

UNOSOM#   UN Operation in Somalia (I 1992-1993/ II 1993-1995)

UNOV           UN Office at Vienna

UNOWA       UN Office in West Africa

UNPFII         UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

UNPO           Unrepresented Nations and Peoples’ Organization (est. 11 Feb. 1991)

UNPOB         United Nations Political Office in Bougainville (est. Aug. 1998), see    


UNPOS         UN Political Office for Somalia (est. 1995)           

UNPREDEP# UN Preventive Deployment Force in Macedonia (1995-1999)         

UNPROFOR# UN Protection Force (in Yugoslavia, 1992-1995)                   

UNPSG#       UN Civilian Police Support Group (16 Jan. 1998-15 Oct. 1998)

UNRCA         UN Register of Conventional Arms                             

UNRCPDA    UN Regional Center for Peace & Disarmament in Africa (Aug. 1990)

UNRISD        UN Research Institute for Social Development

UNRRA#       United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (9 Nov. 1943-   

                     1949), see IRO, IOM

UNRWA        UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East         

                     (est. 8 Dec. 1949)

UNSC           UN Security Council (est. 24 Oct. 1945)                               

UNSCEAR    UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

UNSCOP#    UN Special Committee on Palestine (15 May 1947-1949)

UNSCR         UN Security Council Resolution                                                   

UNSG           UN Secretary General

UNSMIS#     UN Supervision Mission in Syria (est. 21 April 2012-July 2012)

UNSO           UN Sudano-Sahelian Office (UNDP)                                       

UNTC           UN Trusteeship Council (est. 26 Jun 1945)                               

UNTFSA                 UN Trust Fund for South Africa                                                 

UNU             UN University                                                                      

UNUSCEAR  UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

UNV             UN Volunteers (UNDP)                                                     

UNVFVT                 UN Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture (est. 1981)

UNZAP                   UN Zambia Assistance Program

UNOJUST     UN on-line criminal justice clearinghouse

UNSCOB#    UN Special Committee on the Balkans (1947-1954)                    

UNSCOM#    UN Special Commission on Iraq (est. Apr. 1999), see UNMOVIC  

UNSF#          UN Security Force in West New Guinea (1962-1963)                    

UNSMA         UN Special Mission to Afghanistan                       

UNSMIH#      UN Support Mission in Haiti (till July 1997) now UNTMIH   

UNTAC#                 UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (1992-1993)            

UNTAES#     UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia (15 Jan. 1996-15          

                     Jan. 1998)                

UNTAET#     UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (1999-2002), see UNMISET

UNTAF#        Unified Task Force [in Somalia]                                                                

UNTAG#       UN Transition Assistance Group [in Namibia] (1989-1990)         

UNTEA#                 UN Temporary Executive Authority [over West New Guinea] (1962-


UNTMIH#      UN Transition Mission in Haiti (July-Nov. 1993, Aug. 1997-30 Nov.          


UNTOC        UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (November 2000)      

UNTOK#       UN Temporary Commission on Korea (1947-1948)

UNTOP         UN Tajikistan Office of Peace-Building (est. Jun 2000)               

UNTSO         UN Truce Supervision Organization (est. May 1948, Palestine, Suez,     

                     Sinai, Beirut)              

UNYOM#      UN Yemen Observer Mission (1963-1964)

UPD             Unit for the Promotion of Democracy (OAS) (est. 1991)

UPEB*          Union of Banana Exporting Countries 

UPM             Union for the Mediterranean (est. 13 July 2008)                            

UPOV           International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (2         

                     Dec. 1961, revised 19 Mar. 1991)

UPR             universal periodic review [of human rights records] (UNHMRC)

UPU             Universal Postal Union (est. 9 Oct. 1874, UN)                          

UR                Uruguay Round (GATT)                                                           

URUPABOL  Uruguay-Paraguay-Bolivia Group                                      

US                United States, also USA                                                

USA              United States of America, also US                                         

USEGJC       US-Egypt Joint Cooperation Commission

USG             US Government (USG)                                                   

USIJI            US Joint Implementation Initiative (FCCC)                               

USINJC         US-India Joint Commission on Economic, Scientific Educational and      

                     Cultural Cooperation

USISJC         US-Israel Joint Committee for Investment and Trade

USSAEC       US-Saudi Arabia Economic Commission

USSASC       US-Saudi Arabia Security Commission                             

USSR#          Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, also SU                                   

USTSJC        US-Tunisian Joint Commission                                                          

UUSJOJC     US-Jordan Joint Commission



V4                Viségrad Four, Viségrad Group (est. 15 Feb. 1991)               

VCLT            Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties                                        

VCP              Voluntary Cooperation Program (WMO)                                                   

VN                Viet Nam                                                                     

VOLAG                   voluntary agency                                                       

VOPP#                   Vance-Owens Peace Plan (Bosnia, Serbia)




WA               The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms

                     and Dual-Use Goods & Technologies

WACI            West Africa Coast Initiative                       

WADB           West African Development Bank (est. 14 Nov. 1973), also BOAD

WAEMU       West African Economic and Monetary Union (est. 10 Jan. 1994), formerly                     UMOA, also  UEMOA                                     

WARC                    World Administrative Radio Conference                            

WCC            World Council of Churches                            

WCL             World Confederation of Labor (est. 19 June 1920 as IFCTU)

WCW            World Conference on Women (4th: 4-15 Sep. 1995, Beijing, UN), also    


WCO            World Customs Organization, also CCC                      

WDC            World Disarmament Conference                                           

WEC             World Energy Council                                              

WEF             Water Environment Federation                                    

WEF             World Economic Forum 

WAEMU       West African Economic and Monetary Union                                            

WEO            Western Europe and others (UN)                                                 

WEOG          WEO Group (UN)                                                        

WEU#           Western European Union (17 Mar. 1948-31 March 2010)

WFC             World Food Council (est. 17 Dec. 1974, UN)

WFP             World Food Program (est. 24 Nov. 1961, UN)                               

WFTU           World Federation of Trade Unions (est. 1945)

WGIP           Working Group on Indigenous Peoples (UN)                            

WHC            World Heritage Convention                                       

WHO            World Health Organization (est. 22 July 1946, UN)                

WIAS            West Indies Associated State                                             

WIDER         World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU)

WIPO           World Intellectual Property Organization (est. 14 July 1967, UN)

WISA            West Indies States Association 

WMD            weapon(s) of mass destruction                                 

WMO            World Meteorological Organization (est. 11 Oct. 1947, UN)

WOCA                    World Outside Centrally Planned Economies Area

WP#             Warsaw Pact (14 May 1954-1 July 1991), also WTO

WPC             World Peace Council

WSF             World Social Forum                                                   

WSG            International Wool Study Group                                  

WSSD           World Summit on Sustainable Development (UN)

WTO            World Tourism Organization (est. 2 Jan. 1975)                                     

WTO            World Trade Organization (est. 1 Jan. 1995), formerly GATT

WTO#           Warsaw Treaty Organization (14 May 1954-1 July 1991), also WP

WWW           World-Wide Web



Y2K#            Year 2000 [potential computer problem]                                                  

YAR#            Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen), now unified Republic of Yemen,

                     see ROY



ZC                Zangger Committee (est. 1970s, NPT)                  

ZIC               Zambia Investment Center (COMESA)                                            

ZOPFAN       Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ASEAN)




AA*             Anadolu Ajansi (Turkey)                             

AAP              Australian Associated Press                                                          

AFP*             Agence France Press (France)                                                      

AGERPRES*Agentia Romina de Presa (Romania)

AMNA           Athens-Macedonian News Agency, formerly ANA

ANA#            Athens News Agency                                                         

ANI               Agençia de Noticias e de Informaçoes (Portugal)                           

ANP*            Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau (Netherlands)

ANSA*          Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (Italy)                                 

ANTARA*      Indonesian National News Agency Institute

AP                Associated Press (USA)                                                              

APA              Austria-Press-Agentur                                       

APP              Associated Press of Pakistan                                      

APS*            Algérie Presse Service (Algeria)                                       

APSA*          Algérie Presse Service (Algeria)                                                     

ATA              Agence Télégraphique Albanaise (Albania)                                                                           

BELGA*                  Agence Telegraphique Belge de Presse (Belgium)

BelTA           Belarus Telegraph Agency

BERNAMA*  Malaysian National News Agency                                                                

BNS              Baltic News Service                                                                        

BTA*             Bulgarska Telegrafna Agencya (Bulgaria)                                                                                    

CNA             Central News Agency (Taiwan)                                   

CNA             Cyprus News Agency                                                                          

CP                Canadian Press                                                             

CTK*            Ceskoslovenska Tiskova Kancelai (Czech Republic)                                                                           

dpa*              Deutsche Presse-Agentur (Germany)                                                                                          

EFE*             Agencia EFE (Spain)                                                                   

ELTA*           Lietuvos Telegramø agentûra (Lithuania)                                   

Estado          Agencia Estado (Brazil)                                                         

ETA*#           Eesti Teadete Agentur (Estonia) (1918//31 Jan 2003)                                                                        

HINA*           Hrvastka Izvestaijna Novinska Agencija (Croatia)                                                                           

INA               Iraqi News Agency                                                                      

Interfax         Interfax News Agency (Russia) 

Interfax         Interfax-Ukraine                                                   

IRNA            Islamic Republic News Agency (Iran)                                                           

ITAR-TASS   Information Telegraphic Agency of Russia-TASS

ITIM*            News Agency of the Associated Israel Press                                                                                 

JANA            Jamahiriya Arab News Agency (Libya)                                       

Jiji*               Jiji Tsushin Sha (Japan)                                                                                                   

KAZINFORM Kazakhstan Information

KCNA           Korean Central News Agency (North Korea)                                           

Kyodo*          Kyodo Tsushin Sha (Japan)                                                                                                  

LETA*           Latvian News Agency                                                         

LUSA*          Lusitania Agência Noticiosa (Portugal)                                                                                 

MAP*            Maghreb Arabe Presse (Morocco) 

MENA           Middle East News Agency (Egypt)                                                                  

MIA              Macedonian Information Agency                                                      

MTI*             Magyar Tavirati Iroda (Hungary)                                                                                            

NEPA           New Zealand Press Association                                                 

NNA             National News Agency (Lebanon)                                                          

NOTIMEX*    Agencia Mexicana de Noticias (Mexico)

Novosti*        Russian Information Agency (Russia) 

NTB              Norsk Telegrambyra (Norway)


ONASA         ONASA News Agency (Bosnia and Herzegovina)         


PA                The Press Association (UK)                                                      

PANA           Panafrican News Agency                                                  

PAP*            Polska Agencia Prasowa (Poland)                                           

PETRA*                  Official Jordanian News Agency                           

PNS              Philippine News Service                                        

PPA              Pakistan Press Association                                                      

PPI               Pakistan Press International

PTI               Press Trust of India                                                                                                       

RB*               Ritzaus Bureau Dansk Telegrambureau (Denmark)

Reuters         Reuters Ltd. (UK)                                                                                                          

SANA           Syrian Arab News Agency                                                 

SAPA           South African Press Association                                           

SDA*            Schweizer Depeschen Agentur (Switzerland)                                              

SNARK*        Armenian News Agency                                                                    

SRNA           Serbian News Agency                                               

STA*             Slovenska Tiskovna Agencija (Slovakia)                                               

STT*             Suomen Tietotoimisto (Finland)                                                                                             

Tanjug*         Telegrafska novinska agencija Srbije (Serbia)

TAP*             Agence Tunis Afrique Presse (Tunisia)                                                             

TASR           Tlacova Agentura Slovenskej Republiky (Slovakia)

TASS*#         Telegrafnoye Agentstvo Sovyetskogo Soyusa (USSR)

TELAM*                  Agencia Nacional de Noticias Télam (Argentina)

TT*               Tidningarnas Telegrambyra (Sweden)

Turan*          Azerbaijan News Agency                                                                                                     

UNI               United News of India                                                                                

UPI               United Press International (USA)


WAFA*          Palestinian News Agency                                                                                                    

Xinhua*         New China News Agency                                                                                                      

Yonhap         Yonhap News Agency (South Korea)                                                                                           


* non-English abbreviation

# no longer in use

est. established


Sources: Government information offices, international organizations, IO database, press announcements, United Nations (UN), US Department of State.


Completion: Includes information dated 10 November 2018 or earlier. Completed in November 2018.


(Replacing International and Political Abbreviations, 21st Edition, Global Survey, Vol. 48, No. 3U/498, November 2018.)



Published by The International Observer of Washington DC USA.