ISSN: 1075-4644

Global Survey Vol. 46 No. 484/11N   November 2016

 

ISLAMIC TERMS AND CALENDAR

14th Updated Edition

 

This survey is designed to provide accurate and useful information on the subject matter covered. Every reasonable effort is made to include current data from authoritative sources and verify its accuracy.

 

adhan

Call to prayer.

adul

Notary under Islamic law.

Allah

God (Arabic).

arba’een (Arabic)/Chehelom (Persian) (40th)

End of the 40-day commemorative period of mourning for Imam Husayn ibn ‘Ali, son of the first Shi’a imam and Prophet Muhammad’s grandson who died in battle at Karbala, Iraq, on 10 October 680 AD (61 AH), see also ashura.

asabiyya

Solidarity of a group aimed at gaining and maintaining power.

ashura (youm-i-ashur, Pakistan)

Muslim day of remembrance, the 10th day of the month of Muharram: Death of Husayn ibn ‘Ali, the son of the first Shi’a iman and Prophet Muhammad’s grandson Husayn ibn ‘Ali in the battle of Karbala, Iraq, on 10 October 680 AD (61 AH). See also arba’een.

awqaf see waqf

Ayatollah

Sign of God, title of a senior Muslim cleric (Shi'a, Iran).

 

batin

Implicit message of the Qu’ran.

 

Caliph, Khalifa

Successor of Muhammad. Civil and religious ruler of the Muslim community (deputy, Arabic). The last universally recognized Caliphate was headed by the Ottoman emperor until 3 March 1924.

chowry, chaudri, chaudhari, chaudhury

Headman (India, Pakistan)

 

darul uloom

Islamic seminary

dhikr

Collective repetition of the name of God.

dhimma

Contract of protection between Muslim ruler and members of other religions.

dhimmis

Tolerated non-Muslims in an Islamic state.

du’a

Individual supplications (after obligatory prayer).

 

Eid al-Adha, ’id al-adha

Feast of Sacrifice, celebration of the close of the hajj; eid-ul-zuha (India, Pakistan).

Eid al-Fitr, ’id al-fitr

Festival commemorating the end of the month of Ramadan.

 

faqih

Muslim jurist. The Supreme Leader of Iran.

fatwa, fatawa (plural)

Authoritative ruling on religious doctrine or law issued by a mufti (Sunni) or mujtahid (Shi’a).

fiqh

Islamic jurisprudence; for four schools of law, see Sunni

 

hadith

Traditional account of the deeds and words of Muhammad (narrative, tradition, Arabic).

hadood

Breach of Islamic moral code.

haji

Muslim who has made the pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca and completed the required rituals. Usually added to name: Haji or al-Haji.

hajj

Required annual pilgrimage to the holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia (starting out, Arabic).

hanafi

One of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Hanafite(s). See Sunna.

hanbali

One of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Hanbalite(s). See Sunna.

haramin

Religiously forbidden.

hazrat

Title of a prophet (threshold, Arabic).

hijab

Practice of secluding and veiling (chador) of women.

hijira, hijra, hejira/hegira

Migration of the Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina on 16 July 622, beginning of the Islamic calendar.

hisba

Right of male Muslims to bring suit against matters or persons considered to be in violation of Islam.

hizb

Secret prayer (Arabic).

Hojatalislam (Arabic), Hojjat ol-Eslam (Persian)

Proof of Islam, honorary title awarded to middle-level clerics (Shi'a, Iran).

Holy qods

The Holy City of Jerusalem.

hubal

Pre-Islamic idol worship in the Ka’bah in Mecca, a target of Muhammad’s struggle against idolatry.

 

ibadat

Acts of worship.

imam

Leader of congregational prayers.

Islam

Monotheistic religion, “submission to God’s will” (Arabic).

Isra wa Miraj

Holiday commemorating the belief that Prophet Muhammad upon his death on 8 June 632 journeyed at night from Mecca (Makkah) to Jerusalem and ascended to heaven.

 

jihad

(1)  Personal struggle to follow divine law; (2) Struggle to establish Islamic law and defeat its enemies, i.e., holy war.

 

kaafir, kafir

Unbeliever (Arabic).

Ka’bah, Kaaba

Central shrine of Islam in Mecca and first stop on the hajj (q.v.).

khatib

Preacher.

khutba, khotba

A sermon, Friday prayers.

Koran See Qur’an

 

madhab

The four schools of Islamic jurisprudence. See hanafi, hanbali, maliki, shafii, and Sunni.

Madhi

“Hidden Imam” who will reappear until the Last Days.

madrasa, madrassah

Koranic school.

Mahdi

One who is guided by Allah (Arabic).

malam, mallam

An educated man or one learned in Koranic studies (West Africa, title in Northern Nigeria).

maliki

One of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Malikite(s).

masjid

Public place of worship, usually inside a mosque.

maulawi/maulana

Islamic preacher (one learned in theology) who has graduated from a bigger religious school; see also mullah.

Maulvi, Mawlvi, Moulvi, Mawlawi

Master of Islamic law (master, Arabic).

mir

Honorary title for a person who descended from illustrious ancestors; also descendant of  Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima (noble, Arabic) (Azerbaijan). See Syed, Saiyid, Sayyid, Sayyed.

muezzin

Announcer of daily prayers (mu’adhdhin, Arabic).

mufti, mofti

Interpreter of Islamic law.

Mujahadin

Muslim militant who wages jihad.

mujtahid, mojtahid

A learned man competent to interpret the Qu’ran (Shi’a).

mullah, mulla, molla

Islamic preacher (one learned in theology) who has graduated from a bigger religious school, commonly a local Islamic clergyman or leader of a mosque, derivation of maulawi/maulana.

munafiqun

The Hypocrites of Medina

Muslim

Islamic believer, also Moslem.

mutawwiun

Religious police (volunteers, Arabic).

al-Muwahhidunsee Wahhabi.

 

nabi

Prophet.

namaaz

The five prescribed daily prayers (Persian, Sanskrit).

Nizam-i-Adal

Islamic court in Pakistan  (Order of Justice, Urdu).

 

pir

Religious leader (Sufi master), also faith healer (Pakistan)

Prophet

Muhammad (570-632), Arab prophet and founder of Islam.

 

qadar

Divine will.

qadi, qadhi, kadi

Judge in shar’ia law courts.

qa’id

Pre-Islamic tribal war leader.

qibla

Direction facing in prayer toward Mecca.

Qur’an, Koran

Collected divine revelations to Muhammad (recitation, Arabic).

 

Ramadan

Holy 9th month of the Islamic calendar, a month of daytime fast to commemorate when Muhammad received the first divine revelation.

ramaz

Muslim obligatory five daily prayers. See also salat.

ramzan

Ramadan in India (Hindi). See Ramadan.

rasul

Messenger.

 

sadaqa

Voluntary charity.

salaf

Ancestors.

salafi

Adherent of salafiyya. See Sufi.

salafiyya

Islamic religious movement to purify the faith (venerable forefathers, Arabic). See Sufi.

salat

Muslim obligatory five daily prayers. See also ramaz.

sawm

Feasting during the month of Ramadan.

Sayyid, see Syed

shahadah

Affirmation of faith “God is God and Muhammad is his Messenger”.

shafii

One of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Shafite(s). See Sunni.

shari’a

Islamic law derived from the Qur’an and the sunna.

Sharif

Honorary title for a person who descended from illustrious ancestors; also descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima (noble, Arabic). See also Syed.

Shaykh, Sheikh

A highborn Muslim; descendant of two companions of the Prophet Muhammad: ‘Ali ben ‘Ali Talib and Salam al-Farisi; also tribal or clan leader (old man, chief, leader, Arabic).

Shi’a

Second largest sect of Islam of the followers of ‘Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad (partisan, Arabic).

Shi’ism

Faith of shi’i.

Shi’ite, Shi’i

Follower of the shi’a, the second major Islamic sect.

shirk

Polytheism, idolatry.

Sufi, Sufism

Mystic tradition to pursue spiritual truth through practice of asceticism (Sunni).

Sunna

Body of traditions (of Medina) (path, Arabic).

Sunni

Largest sect of Islam of the followers of one of Muhammad’s first converts, ‘Abu Bakr. Follower of the sunna, the major Islamic sect divided into schools of law: 

            Maliki school of jurisprudence (Malik ibn Anas, 715-795)     

            Hanafi school (Abu Hanifa, 699-767) 

            Hanbali school (Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 780-855), see also Wahhabism    

Shafi’i school (AbdAbd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafii, 767-820) traditionist

sura, surah

Chapter of the Qur’an.

Syed, Saiyid, Sayyid, Sayyed

Honorary title for a person who descended from illustrious ancestors; lord, master; also equivalent to Mr.; also descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima (noble, Arabic), especially Shi’a. See also Mir, Shayk, Sharif.

 

takfir

Condemnation: Declaration that a Muslim has ceased to being a Muslim, also  Shi’ite reference to “extremist Sunni Muslims.”.

talaq

Male prerogative divorce.

taqiyah, taghiye

Concealment of one’s true feelings or thoughts, a Shi’ite practice of allowable lying in defense of one’s faith

tariqah

Path or way of Sufi brotherhoods:     

            Ahmadiyyah-Idrisyyah (Abd al-Al/Ahmad ibn-Idris)   

            Bektashi Sufi (rural areas of Albania)

            Chishti brotherhood (Sultan Muin al-Din Chishti ?-1236; India)        

            Hamal (Chérif Hamallah ?-1943, Senegal)    

            Khalidiyyah-Naqshbandiyyah brotherhoods (Khalid al-Baghdadi)    

            Khalwatiyyah brotherhood     

            Khariji/Kharijites, Kharijism (657; North Africa-Berber, Oman, Zanzibar)        

            Ibadites (Al-Ibadhiyah)  (‘Abdullah ibn Ibadh al-Tamimi, late 7th century)          

            Khatmiyyah brotherhood (Sudan)      

            Layennes (Sayyid Limamou Laye, a Lébou, 1843-1909)      

            Mevlevi Sufi (Mevlana Jelaluddin Rumi/Lalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi ?-1273)           

            (Whirling Dervishes)  

Muridiyyah/Murid brotherhood (Shaykh Amadou Bamba al-Baki 1857-1927)(Senegal)          

            Naqshbandiyyah brotherhood (Central Asia, India)   

            Quadiriyah brotherhood (‘Abd al-Qadir al Jilani 1077/8-1166 Caucasus, India)        

            Rifa’iyyah brotherhood (Ahmad bin ‘Ali al-Rifa’I (499-577, Iraq)       

            Sanusiyyah brotherhood (Libya, North Africa)           

            Shadhiliyyah brotherhood(al-Jazuli -1465 (Egypt)     

            Shattariyyah brotherhood (Hamzah al-Fansuri -1600; India) 

            Suhrawardiyyah brotherhood (Shibab al-Din al-Suhraqardi 1154-1191; India, Syria)    

Tijaniyyah brotherhood(Sheikh Sayyid Ahmas al-Tijani (1737-1815) (Morocco),  includes local African religious elements)                      

Sub-groups in Senegal:                     

                        Malikiya (Al Hadj Malik Sey 1855-1929)                    

                        Niassenes (Ibrahim Niasse) (also Nigeria)

tawhid

Unity (Arabic); strongly emphasize in Salafiyya.

Twelver Shias

Predominant adherents of Shi’a who believe in 12 imams.

 

udul

Group of witnesses (Arabic).

ulama/ulema

The religious-legal scholars of Islam (possessors of knowledge, Arabic).

umma

Community of Muslims (mother, source, Arabic).

umrah

Lesser pilgrimage to the holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia carried out any time during the year (to visit a populated place, Arabic).

 

Wahhabi

Adherent of Wahhabism (lit. generous giver, referring to Allah) (Sunni). Preferred name of Wahhabis is al-Muwahhidun (monotheist).

Wahhabism

Islamic Sunni conservative, fundamental, puritanical sect adhering to the Hanbali school and seeing itself as true believers, founded by Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1787). Dominant in Saudi Arabia. In Russia and the Central Asian republics, W. is attacked as Islamic fundamentalism.

waqf

Religious trust or endowment (awqaf, plural).

wilaya

Sainthood.

wudu

Ritual washing before prayer.

 

Zaidi

Shi’ite sect in Yemen.

zakat

Alms tax (purification, growth, Arabic).

 

Islamic Calendar

The lunar year is divided into 12 months of 29 and 30 days. The calendar is based on the move of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, the hijira, hejira or hegira on 16 July 622 A.D. (Julian Calendar). A.H. Anno hegirae.

 

Sequence of months:

Muharram

Safar

Rabi’ al-Awwal

Rabi’ al-Thani

Jumada  al-Ula

Jumada al-Akhira

Rajab

Sha’ban

Ramadan

Shawwal

Dhu al-Qa’dah

Dhu al-Hijjah

 

Sequence of days:

al-ahad (1st day)                                              Sunday

al-ithnayn (2nd  day)                                         Monday

ath-thalaathaa’ (3rd day)                                  Tuesday

al-arba’aa’ (4th day)                                         Wednesday

al-khamis (5th day)                                          Thursday

al-jumu’ah (gathering day [6th])                       Friday

as-sabt (7th day)                                              Saturday

 

 

Years A.H.

1                                  15/16 July 622 – 4 July 623

1421                            6 April 2000-25 March 2001

1422                            26 March 2001-15 March 2002

1423                            15 March 2002-4 March 2003

1424                            5 March 2003-20 February 2004

1425                            22 February 2004-9 February 2005

1426                            10 February 2005-30 January 2006

1427                            31 January 2006-19 January 2007

1428                            20 January 2007-9 January 2008

1429                            10 January 2008- 28 December 2008

1430                            29 December 2009-17 December 2009

1431                            18 December 2009-6 December 2010

1432                            7 December 2010-25 November 2011

1433                            26 November 2011-14 November 2012

1434                            15 November 2012-4 November 2013

1435                            5 November 2013-24 October 2014

1436                            25 October 2014-14 October 2015

1437                            15 October 2015-2 October 2016

1438                            2 October 206-21 September 2017

1439                            21 September 2017-10 September 2018

1440                            11 September 2018-30 September 2019

 

Sources

Aslaksen, Helmer, Department of Mathematics, National University of Singapore, 2014.

Bacharach, Jere L. A Near East Studies Handbook, Revised Edition, Seattle: University of

Washington Press, 1976.

Esposito, John L. Editor The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hiro, Dilip Dictionary of the Middle East, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.

Richard, Yann Shi’ite Islam Polity, Ideology, and Creed Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1995.

 

Completion: Includes information dated 30 November 2016 or earlier. Completed in November 2016.

 

(Replacing Islamic Terms and Calendar, Global Survey, Vol. 44, No. 447/15K, December 2014.)

 

(Replacing Islamic Terms and Calendar, The International Observer, Vol. 35, No. 550, April 2016, pp. 7383-7389.)

 

 

 

Published by The International Observer of Washington DC USA