GLOBAL SURVEY Vol. 48 No. 9P/506 November 2019
ISLAMIC TERMS AND CALENDAR
14th Updated Edition
This survey is designed to provide accurate and useful information on the subject matter covered. Every reasonable effort is made to include current data from authoritative sources and verify its accuracy.
Call to prayer.
Notary under Islamic law.
arba’een (Arabic)/Chehelom (Persian) (40th)
End of the 40-day commemorative period of mourning for Imam Husayn ibn ‘Ali, son of the first Shi’a imam and Prophet Muhammad’s grandson who died in battle at Karbala, Iraq, on 10 October 680 AD (61 AH), see also ashura.
Solidarity of a group aimed at gaining and maintaining power.
Muslim day of remembrance, the 10th day of the month of Muharram: Death of Husayn ibn ‘Ali, the son of the first Shi’a iman and Prophet Muhammad’s grandson Husayn ibn ‘Ali in the battle of Karbala, Iraq, on 10 October 680 AD (61 AH). See also arba’een.
awqaf see waqf
Sign of God, title of a senior Muslim cleric (Shi'a, Iran).
Implicit message of the Qu’ran.
Successor of Muhammad. Civil and religious ruler of the Muslim community (deputy, Arabic). The last universally recognized Caliphate was headed by the Ottoman emperor until 3 March 1924.
chowry, chaudri, chaudhari, chaudhury
Headman (India, Pakistan)
Collective repetition of the name of God.
Contract of protection between Muslim ruler and members of other religions.
Tolerated non-Muslims in an Islamic state.
Individual supplications (after obligatory prayer).
Eid al-Adha, ’id al-adha
of Sacrifice, celebration of the close of the hajj; eid-ul-zuha
Eid al-Fitr, ’id al-fitr
Festival commemorating the end of the month of Ramadan.
Muslim jurist. The Supreme Leader of Iran.
fatwa, fatawa (plural)
Authoritative ruling on religious doctrine or law issued by a mufti (Sunni) or mujtahid (Shi’a).
Islamic jurisprudence; for four schools of law, see Sunni
Traditional account of the deeds and words of Muhammad (narrative, tradition, Arabic).
Breach of Islamic moral code.
Muslim who has made the pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca and completed the required rituals. Usually added to name: Haji or al-Haji.
pilgrimage to the holy cities of Islam,
One of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Hanafite(s). See Sunna.
One of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Hanbalite(s). See Sunna.
Title of a prophet (threshold, Arabic).
Practice of secluding and veiling (chador) of women.
hijira, hijra, hejira/hegira
of the Muhammad and his followers from
Right of male Muslims to bring suit against matters or persons considered to be in violation of Islam.
Secret prayer (Arabic).
Hojatalislam (Arabic), Hojjat ol-Eslam (Persian)
Proof of Islam, honorary title awarded to middle-level clerics (Shi'a, Iran).
idol worship in the Ka’bah in
Acts of worship.
Leader of congregational prayers.
Monotheistic religion, “submission to God’s will” (Arabic).
Isra wa Miraj
commemorating the belief that Prophet Muhammad upon his death on 8 June 632 journeyed
at night from
(1) Personal struggle to follow divine law; (2) Struggle to establish Islamic law and defeat its enemies, i.e., holy war.
Central shrine of Islam in Mecca and first stop on the hajj (q.v.).
A sermon, Friday prayers.
Koran See Qur’an
The four schools of Islamic jurisprudence. See hanafi, hanbali, maliki, shafii, and Sunni.
“Hidden Imam” who will reappear until the Last Days.
One who is guided by Allah (Arabic).
An educated man or one learned in Koranic studies (West Africa, title in Northern Nigeria).
One of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Malikite(s).
Public place of worship, usually inside a mosque.
Islamic preacher (one learned in theology) who has graduated from a bigger religious school (especially in Central and South Asia); see also mullah.
Maulvi, Mawlvi, Moulvi, Mawlawi
Master of Islamic law (master, Arabic).
Honorary title for a person who descended from illustrious ancestors; also descendant of Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima (noble, Arabic) (Azerbaijan). See Syed, Saiyid, Sayyid, Sayyed.
Announcer of daily prayers (mu’adhdhin, Arabic).
Interpreter of Islamic law.
Muslim militant who wages jihad.
A learned man competent to interpret the Qu’ran (Shi’a).
mullah, mulla, molla
Islamic preacher (one learned in theology) who has graduated from a bigger religious school, commonly a local Islamic clergyman or leader of a mosque, derivation of maulawi/maulana.
The Hypocrites of
Islamic believer, also Moslem.
Religious police (volunteers, Arabic).
The five prescribed daily prayers (Persian, Sanskrit).
Islamic court in Pakistan (Order of Justice, Urdu).
Religious leader (Sufi master), also faith healer (Pakistan)
Muhammad (570-632), Arab prophet and founder of Islam.
qadi, qadhi, kadi
Judge in shar’ia law courts.
Pre-Islamic tribal war leader.
Direction facing in prayer toward Mecca.
Collected divine revelations to Muhammad (recitation, Arabic).
Holy 9th month of the Islamic calendar, a month of daytime fast to commemorate when Muhammad received the first divine revelation.
Muslim obligatory five daily prayers. See also salat.
Adherent of salafiyya. See Sufi.
Islamic religious movement to purify the faith (venerable forefathers, Arabic). See Sufi.
Muslim obligatory five daily prayers. See also ramaz.
Feasting during the month of Ramadan.
Sayyid, see Syed
Affirmation of faith “God is God and Muhammad is his Messenger”.
One of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Shafite(s). See Sunni.
Islamic law derived from the Qur’an and the sunna.
Honorary title for a person who descended from illustrious ancestors; also descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima (noble, Arabic). See also Syed.
A highborn Muslim; descendant of two companions of the Prophet Muhammad: ‘Ali ben ‘Ali Talib and Salam al-Farisi; also tribal or clan leader (old man, chief, leader, Arabic).
Second largest sect of Islam of the followers of ‘Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad (partisan, Arabic).
Faith of shi’i.
Follower of the shi’a, the second major Islamic sect.
Mystic tradition to pursue spiritual truth through practice of asceticism (Sunni).
of traditions (of
Largest sect of Islam of the followers of one of Muhammad’s first converts, ‘Abu Bakr. Follower of the sunna, the major Islamic sect divided into schools of law:
Maliki school of jurisprudence (Malik ibn Anas, 715-795)
Hanafi school (Abu Hanifa, 699-767)
Hanbali school (Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 780-855), see also Wahhabism
Shafi’i school (Abd ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafii, 767-820) traditionist
Chapter of the Qur’an.
Syed, Saiyid, Sayyid, Sayyed
Honorary title for a person who descended from illustrious ancestors; lord, master; also equivalent to Mr.; also descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima (noble, Arabic), especially Shi’a. See also Mir, Shayk, Sharif.
Condemnation: Declaration that a Muslim has ceased to being a Muslim, also Shi’ite reference to “extremist Sunni Muslims.”.
Male prerogative divorce.
Concealment of one’s true feelings or thoughts, a Shi’ite practice of allowable lying in defense of one’s faith
Path or way of Sufi brotherhoods:
Ahmadiyyah-Idrisyyah (Abd al-Al/Ahmad ibn-Idris)
Bektashi Sufi (rural areas of
brotherhood (Sultan Muin al-Din Chishti
Hamal (Chérif Hamallah ?-1943, Senegal)
Khalidiyyah-Naqshbandiyyah brotherhoods (Khalid al-Baghdadi)
Khariji/Kharijites, Kharijism (657; North Africa-Berber,
Ibadites (Al-Ibadhiyah) (‘Abdullah ibn Ibadh al-Tamimi, late 7th century)
Khatmiyyah brotherhood (
Layennes (Sayyid Limamou Laye, a Lébou, 1843-1909)
Mevlevi Sufi (Mevlana Jelaluddin Rumi/Lalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi ?-1273)
Muridiyyah/Murid brotherhood (Shaykh Amadou Bamba
brotherhood (Central Asia,
Quadiriyah brotherhood (‘Abd al-Qadir al Jilani 1077/8-1166 Caucasus, India)
Rifa’iyyah brotherhood (Ahmad bin ‘Ali al-Rifa’I (499-577,
Sanusiyyah brotherhood (
Shadhiliyyah brotherhood(al-Jazuli -1465 (
Shattariyyah brotherhood (Hamzah
Suhrawardiyyah brotherhood (Shibab al-Din al-Suhraqardi 1154-1191; India, Syria)
Tijaniyyah brotherhood(Sheikh Sayyid Ahmas al-Tijani (1737-1815) (Morocco), includes local African religious elements)
Malikiya (Al Hadj Malik Sey 1855-1929)
Niassenes (Ibrahim Niasse) (also Nigeria)
Unity (Arabic); strongly emphasize in Salafiyya.
Predominant adherents of Shi’a who believe in 12 imams.
Group of witnesses (Arabic).
The religious-legal scholars of Islam (possessors of knowledge, Arabic).
Community of Muslims (mother, source, Arabic).
Lesser pilgrimage to the holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia carried out any time during the year (to visit a populated place, Arabic).
Adherent of Wahhabism (lit. generous giver, referring to Allah) (Sunni). Preferred name of Wahhabis is al-Muwahhidun (monotheist).
conservative, fundamental, puritanical sect adhering to the Hanbali
school and seeing itself as true believers, founded by
Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab
(1703-1787). Dominant in
Religious trust or endowment (awqaf, plural).
Ritual washing before prayer.
Shi’ite sect in Yemen.
Alms tax (purification, growth, Arabic).
The lunar year is divided into 12 months of 29 and 30 days. The calendar is based on the move of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, the hijira, hejira or hegira on 16 July 622 A.D. (Julian Calendar). A.H. Anno hegirae.
Sequence of months:
Sequence of days:
al-ahad (1st day) Sunday
al-ithnayn (2nd day) Monday
ath-thalaathaa’ (3rd day) Tuesday
al-arba’aa’ (4th day) Wednesday
al-khamis (5th day) Thursday
al-jumu’ah (gathering day [6th]) Friday
as-sabt (7th day) Saturday
1 15/16 July 622 – 4 July 623
1421 6 April 2000-25 March 2001
1422 26 March 2001-15 March 2002
1423 15 March 2002-4 March 2003
1424 5 March 2003-20 February 2004
1425 22 February 2004-9 February 2005
1426 10 February 2005-30 January 2006
1427 31 January 2006-19 January 2007
1428 20 January 2007-9 January 2008
1429 10 January 2008- 28 December 2008
1430 29 December 2009-17 December 2009
1431 18 December 2009-6 December 2010
1432 7 December 2010-25 November 2011
1433 26 November 2011-14 November 2012
1434 15 November 2012-4 November 2013
1435 5 November 2013-24 October 2014
1436 25 October 2014-14 October 2015
1437 15 October 2015-2 October 2016
1438 2 October 206-21 September 2017
1439 21 September 2017-10 September 2018
1440 11 September 2018-31 August 2019
1441 31 August 2019-20 August 2020
Aslaksen, Helmer, Department of Mathematics, National University of Singapore, 2014.
Bacharach, Jere L. A Near East Studies Handbook, Revised Edition, Seattle: University of
Washington Press, 1976.
Esposito, John L. Editor The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Hiro, Dilip Dictionary of the Middle East, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
Richard, Yann Shi’ite Islam Polity, Ideology, and Creed Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1995.
Completion: Includes information dated 7 November 2019 or earlier. Completed in November 2019.
(Replacing Islamic Terms and Calendar, Global Survey, Vol. 48, No. 9O/502, November 2018.)
Published by The International Observer of Washington DC USA