GLOBAL SURVEY Vol. 49 No. 8P/508 November 2019
INTERNATIONAL AND POLITICAL TERMS
16th Updated Edition
This expanded and updated edition is designed to provide accurate and useful information on the subject matter covered. Every reasonable effort is made to include current data from authoritative sources and verify its accuracy.
Talks about Transdniestria by Moldova, Transdniestria, Russia, Ukraine, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and Observers of the European Union (EU) and the United States of America.
European Union (EU)-Arab Maghreb Union (UMA) informal group formed 1990. See Dialogue 5+5.
Dignitary, incl. members of the royal family, judiciary, and politicians who have the right to be tried for crimes at a higher court (Spain).
Residence of the President of Pakistan in Islamabad.
Chief residence of the Japanese emperor in Tokyo.
Ak Orda Presidential Palace (Ak Orda ‘the White Horde’ – Akorda)
Official residence of the President of Kazakhstan in Nursultan (Astana).
Ak Saray (White Palace)
New residence of the President of Turkey on the grounds of the Atatürk Forest Farm (AOÇ) in the Beştepe neighborhood of Ankara, completed in 2015.
Icelandic parliament in
Official residence of the Brazilian president in Brasília.
Practice of hiring retired civil servants as heads of public corporations (Japanese).
Regional group formed on 26 May 1969.
Axis of Evil#
Term used by US President George W. Bush in the State of Union Address on 28 January 2002 encompassing Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Libya, and North Korea—see also “countries of concern” and “rogue countries.”
back bench, back bencher
Members of British and Commonwealth parliaments seated in the rear, i.e. members who do not belong to the cabinet or shadow [opposition] cabinet. See also front bench.
Malay language of
Malay language of
Center of government in
Political reference to
Reference analogous to Iron Curtain and formerly applied to
President’s House in
Partnership between the
European Union (EU) and 12 countries south of the
Royal palace of the King of
Agreement among Stanislav S. Shuskhevich (Belarus), Boris N. Yel’tsin (Russia), and Leonid M. Kravchuk (Ukraine) who met at the Belaya Vezha hunting lodge near Brest on 7-8 December 1991 to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Bellevue Castle (Schloss Bellevue)
Residence of Federal President of Federal Republic of Germany at Spreeweg 1, Tiergarten district, in Berlin (since 1994).
Belt and Road
Initiative of the People’s Republic of China of 28 March 2015 to enhance infrastructure links and regional connectivity with Central Asia, Europe, and Russia.
Belvedere (Belweder) Palace
Official residence of the
Polish president in
Reference to French finance
ministry located at 139 rue de Bercy in
Barrier erected on 17 August
1963 by the East German government between East and West Berlin to prevent
commuting and defections from
Location of the official
residence of the President of Iceland on Alftanes peninsula, outside
Ankara District where the Turkish presidential complex is located.
Non-citizen, especially in
Informal reference used in
communist Eastern Europe to the
Major allies in World War
The world’s four major oil enterprises: BP-Amoco, Exxon Mobil, Shell, and Total-Fina. Formerly part of Seven Sisters.
Commonly used in
Major allies in World War
Office of the Indonesian
blood diamonds, see Kimberley Process
Three land-locked states
United Nations peacekeeping forces.
Official residence of the
South Korean president in
US states in which citizens vote predominantly for the Democratic Party; see also Red states.
Government residence at the
International year-long effort initiated by the German federal government to suggest ways to strengthen the capacity to implement arms embargoes, travel and aviation-related sanctions by the United Nations (UN) and member states.
Formulated in 1968 by then President Leonid Brezhnev (1906-1982) declaring that “socialism is indivisible, and its defense is the common cause of all Communists,” i.e., a socialist country cannot leave the communist bloc.
Sons of the soil, i.e.
native Malays of peninsular
Federal chancellor, i.e. head of government in Austria and Germany, head of the administrative office of the government in Switzerland.
Swiss Federal Council (i.e., government executive).
Upper house of parliament
German parliament (lower
Do not get sidetracked, see Three Don’ts (Chinese)
Format for dialog between the five Central Asian states (formerly part of the Soviet Union) and the United States of America, launched on 1 November 2015 by the US.
Regular or extraordinary session of government ministers to discuss and decide on matters of state. Some governments hold periodic meetings, such as
at 10 o’clock, chaired by the president.
Russia: Council of Ministers, every Tuesday, held in the Kremlin.
Russia: President holds meeting of the Security Council every Saturday on
foreign and domestic policy in the Kremlin.
Local party boss (
Community of Muslims led by a supreme religious (and political) leader (khila’afa, Arabic).
Cámara de Diputados
Mexican Chamber of Deputies
Camera dei Deputati
Italian Chamber of Deputies
Former residence of the Turkish President, 6 km south of downtown Ankara. See Ak Saray.
Bloodless “Revolution of
Carnations” carried out on 25 April 1974 by progressive officers ending
civilian dictatorship in
Official residence of the
Ecuadorian President, located in
Official residence of the
Argentine president in
Seat of the government in
Informal designation of
Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Turkey in World War 1. See also Entente.
Seat of Ministry of Foreign
Nickname for the seat of
the Council of Ministers of the European Union on avenue Charlemagne in
Chaudhry, Chouhry, Chaudhari, Chowdhury
Village leader (
Urban management officials Chinese).
Residence of the British
foreign secretary in
Offices of the President of
Seat of Danish parliament
Reference to the Emperor of
chuch’e (chuch’e sasang)
Unitary ideology of
The seven poorest countries
of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) according to the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2003:
City (The City)
British financial district
It holds that the
international community has an obligation to violate the principle of state
sovereignty to protect the rights of a persecuted minority (
Informal group of business leaders, politicians, and scientists formed 1968 to advance social justice and harmony with the environment.
Company (The Company)
Nickname for the
Composite Dialogue Process (CDP)
Process agreed upon by
A 5.7 million km2 maritime conservation area east of the South China Sea, south of the Philippine Sea, and north of Australia encompassing eastern Indonesia, parts of Malaysia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste and the Solomon Islands.
Spanish parliament in
Seat of Romanian president in Bucharest.
countries of concern
US Government term for
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was launched by Mao Zedong (1893-1976) on 2 September 1965 to counter the moderate government of Liu Shao-ch’i and Deng Xiaoping. It was approved by the 11th Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party on 8 August 1966 and Red Guards were created to destroy old authority. The campaign was formally ended by the 9th Party Congress in 1969.
Irish House of
Basic unit of a collective (Chinese).
Adulatory address of North Korean leader Kim Chong-il.
Platform with Arab Countries in Transition established at the 37th summit of the Group of Eight (G8) on 26-27 May 2011 in Deauville, Calvados Department, France
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR)
Indonesian House of Representatives
Malaysian House of
Five representatives each
of the European Union (EU) and North African countries advancing closer
Vietnamese police of renovation, adopted by Vietnamese Communist Party (VCP) in December 1986 as economic reform program.
Domino Effect, Domino Theory#
favored by US political and military leaders in the 1960s, that if then
Reorganization of local
administrative system of
Location of official
residence and office of the British prime minister in
Group of Asian, European and North American governments specializing in problems of narcotics production and trafficking.
State Duma, Russian federal parliament.
Location of UN Headquarters
Finnish parliament in
Official residence of the French president in rue du Faubourg-Saint Honoré, Paris since 1873.
coast, about 20 km east of Hyères, since 13 January 1968.
Château de Rambouillet: Country residence of the French president and guest
house for visiting heads of state since 1896, 35 km southwest of Paris in
Château de Versailles, Yvelines Department: Used for state functions and
houses the presidents of the French National Assembly and the Senate. On the
grounds is the Pavillon de la Lanterne, an 18th century secluded hunting lodge
along the road from Versailles to Saint-Cyr-l'École. It is a favorite hideaway of
the current president and has served as country home of French prime ministers.
le Domaine de Souzy-la-Briche: Alternate residence of the French president
since 1978, about 30 km south of Paris in Essene Department.
Council of the Entente formed on 29 May 1959.
Forcible removal, murder, of an ethnic group and its members from home, territory, and country by the government or an authority of another group, by all means.
European Economic Area European Free Trade Agreement (EEA EFTA) States
Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway
Cultural exclusion claimed
Location of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs in
Start of the current Libyan regime following the overthrow of the monarch on 1 September (al-fatih) 1969.
Fed (The Fed)
Federal Reserve Bank (System) (USA).
Feds (The Feds)
The federal government, the
federal civil servants (
The industrialized countries, developed countries.
Five Peoples of
Han, Manchu, Mongolians, Hui, and Tibetans.
Location of most prominent
British newspaper and press offices in
Nickname for the US Department of State referring to its location in a formerly foggy and swampy area near the Potomac River. See also Fudge Factory.
Danish parliament in
The new industrial Asian
countries of Hong Kong, Korea (ROK),
Same as Four Dragons.
Financial circle reference to the five member states of BRICS: Brazil, India, Russia, China, and South Africa (2014).
Informal reference to the US Central Intelligence Agency, used by British intelligence .
front bench, front bencher
Members of the cabinet or shadow [opposition] cabinet who are seated in the front row in British and Commonwealth parliaments. See also back bench.
African states opposed to white South African government and apartheid policy.
Nickname for the US Department of State. See also Foggy Bottom.
The five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany conducting nuclear talks with Iran. See P5+1.
Traditional courts in
Gandhi principles of non-violence
Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) declared his principles were satya, i.e. truth, and ahimsa, i.e. non-violence. See satyagraha.
Annual national college
entrance examination in
Russian term for openness or transparency. Essential part of policy of economic and political reforms, first introduced by Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachov on 28 June 1988.
Greater integration of countries into the world economy, internationalism in economy.
Government-organized nongovernmental organization.
Green Tree Agreement (GTA)
Treaty between Cameroon and Nigeria concluded on 12 June 2006 at Greentree, New York, ceding the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon.
Doing business based on relationships rather than by formal rules (Chinese).
Official residence of the Crown Princess of Sweden in Hagaparken, Solna, Stockholm.
Foreign policy principle expressed by Walter Hallstein, (1901-1982) Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in 1955 not to open or maintain diplomatic relations with any country that maintains such ties with the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Abandoned in 1972.
Seat of the President of
Former location of the
German Federal Defense Ministry in
Network of informal banking (Arabic).
Final Act on Security and Cooperation in Review, signed 1975 in Helsinki (CSCE).
Regular review of arms control, human rights, environment and other issues (CSCE).
Survivor of 1945
Seat of Austrian president
Residence of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Holy See (The Holy See)
Hôtel de Lassay
Residence of the President of the French National Assembly on the rue de l’Université in Paris.
Residence of the President
Huis ten Bosch
Royal Dutch residence in
Household registration system
The legislature of
Seat of the President of
Madagascar, located 15 km south of
Descendants of those who inhabited land which was then taken over by people from a different ethnic origin (UN definition).
Inner Line (
Established by the British
in 1873 inside the external northern border beneath the foothills of the
Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC)
Standard used by the United Nations (UN) to classify levels of food insecurity:
1 Generally food secure;
2 Moderately/borderline food insecure;
3 Acute food and livelihood crisis;
4 Humanitarian emergency—severe lack of food access, death due to hunger, malnutrition and irreversible livestock asset stripping;
5 Famine or humanitarian catastrophe—complete lack of food access and mass starvation, death, and displacement.
French term for
integrationism, used especially in
Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation (9 December 1987-September 1993, September 2000-current al-Aqsa intifada).
The physical dividing line
between the former Soviet Union and its European satellite states first so
described by Winston Churchill (1874-1965) in a speech on 5 March 1946 in
Islamic movement to reestablish the Caliphate or an Islamic polity.
Brazilian foreign ministry
and foreign service (named after its former palace location in
Iranian intelligence service.
Official residence of the
Egyptian president in
Official residence of the Brazilian vice president in Brasília.
Arabian horse farm and country retreat of the king of Saudi Arabia, located at al-Janadriyah, 45 km outside Riyadh.
Office of the Japanese prime minister.
Kanzlerbungalow (Chancellor Bungalow)#
Former residence of the Federal Chancellor of Germany in Bonn (1963-1998).
karo-kari, also siyah-kari
Code of honor killing (
Death from overwork (Japanese).
Network of subcontractors and suppliers of a larger enterprise, usually fully or partially owned (Japanese).
Executive at regional,
district and city level (
Enough” (Arabic), the slogan of an Egyptian movement protesting the renomination of the incumbent Egyptian president for a 5th term of office in 2005.
The process to certify the origin of rough diamonds which were not mined in areas of rebel movements—mainly in Africa, to fund human rights abuses and wars, the so-called blood diamonds. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was established by the United Nations in 2003
Israeli parliament in
Japanese Diet in
Bloc, coalition (Arabic)
Seat of Soviet Council of
Seat of the Russian
(formerly Soviet) government in
Nomads of Afghanistan.
Korean National Assembly in
A granite castle completed in 1916 which serves as summer residence of the President of Finland. Located near Naantali, Varsinais-Sumi Region (Southwest Finland) on the opposite side of Naantalinlahti Bay.
Kumsusan Palace of the Sun
Mausoleum of the ‘eternal’ leaders of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in Pyongyang.
Homeland of the Kurds.
Concept of secularism, separation of religion and state (French).
Reference to Lahore
Declaration of 21 February 1999 issued following meeting between Indian and
Pakistani prime ministers in
Summer residence of the President of the Czech Republic in Lány, Kladno District.
Non-judicial system of punishment of reeducation through forced labor.
Royal palace in Thimphu, Bhutan.
Summer retreat of the Russian tsar near Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine, and used for official meetings.
Anti-corruption ombudsman in states of India.
Indian parliament (lower
Informal forum of major international commercial banks, used primarily for private debt rescheduling. Founded in 1976.
Official residence of the Uruguayan president in Ascunción.
Building located at 2
Dzerzhinskogo plan in
Royal village of the Swazi king, 20 km east of the capital of Mbane.
“Naked officials,” term used in the People’s Republic of China to describe officials who family members have emigrated.
Arabic for “west”; also
refers to the western North African region consisting of
Iranian parliament in
Council, assembly (Arabic).
Egyptian parliament in Cairo (i.e., people’s council, Arabic).
Official residence of the Philippine president in Manila.
Official residence of the Ukrainian president on Grushevs’kogo Mikhayla Boulevard in Kyiv.
mass line (qunzhong luxian, Chinese)
Leadership method of the Communist Party of China (CPC) by Mao Zedong. One-year “mass line” campaign started in June 2013 under Xi Jinping to clean up four undesirable work styles: formalism, bureaucracy, hedonism, and extravagance
Official residence of the French prime minister in Paris. At the end of its park, with a separate entrance, lies le Pavillon de musique, a hideaway used for discreet talks.
"Helvetica" Hôtel de Marigny: Official guest house of the French government in Paris.
Boundary line drawn between British India and Tibet by British Captain Henry McMahon in 1916 but never accepted by a Chinese government.
Merdeka Palace (Istana Merdeka)
Residence of the President of Indonesia in Jakarta. Known as Koningsplein Palace until 1945 in former Batavia.
Middle East Quartet
Initiative started by representatives of the United Nations, European Union, Russian Federation, and the United States of America on 25 October 2001 to obtain a ceasefire after the outbreak of the 2nd Palestinian intifada in September 2000 and continuing attempts to secure a peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) group set up to settle disputes between states of the former Soviet Union—the Minsk process.
Process of the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to settle disputes between states of the former Soviet Union, such as Nagorno-Karabakh.
Official residence of the President of Venezuela in Caracas.
Indian Muslims who fled to Pakistan at the time of the partition in 1947, i.e., refugee (Urdu).
Seat of the Spanish government in Madrid.
Official residence of the Chilean president in Santiago.
Japanese ethic of waste not (Japanese).
Family code (Morocco).
most favorite nation (MFN) clause
Obligation of a country to grant all advantages in commerce and trade to another country.
Combatant, fighter (Arabic).
Secret police, intelligence service (Arabic).
The leader or Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood (al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin) in Egypt.
Morality or religious police in Saudi Arabia.
Arab Palestinian term describing the day before the establishment of the State of Israel (14 May 1948) and consequent loss of their territories (Calamity in Arabic).
Royal palace of the King of Nepal in Kathmandu.
Austrian and Swiss parliament (lower house).
NATO Ministerial Guidance
Issued by defense ministers of member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) every two years at the regular spring meeting.
Russian reference to the 14 non-Russian republics succeeding the former constituent Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union.
New World Order#
Vision of the post-Cold War world expressed by US President George Bush on 7 March 1991.
Norman format, Quartet
Talks about implementing Minsk agreement on Ukraine by France, Germany, Russia, and Ukraine.
Northern Triangle [of Central America]
El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.
Manor located 30 minutes west of Moscow in Krylatskoe district by the Rublyovo-Uspenskoye Highway. It serves as official residence of the Russian president.
One Belt, One Road, see Silk Road Economic Belt
Reference to use of orange as an identifying color of pro-democracy forces in Ukraine who demonstrated for and elected Viktor Yushchenko President in December 2004.
Hungarian National Assembly in Budapest.
Following secret negotiations in Oslo between Israeli and Palestine Arab representatives, aided by Norway, on 9 September 1993, Israel recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the Palestine representative and the PLO accepted the right of Israel to exist.
Independence (Central Asian Republics).
The five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany (2006).
Pacific Rim countries
China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (ROK), Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan (ROC), and Thailand.
Palácio de Belém
Residence of the President of Portugal on Calcada da Ajuda in Lisbon.
Official residence of the Venezuelan president in Caracas.
Official residence of the Spanish prime minister in Madrid.
Official residence of the Colombian president in Bogotá.
Building housing the French National Assembly in Paris.
Former official residence of the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany in Bonn.
Residence of Italian prime minister in Rome.
Building housing the Chamber of Deputies in Rome.
Five principles of peaceful coexistence (India). Agreed to by China and India concerning Chinese sovereignty in Tibet on 20 April 1954:
(1) Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty;
(2) Mutual non-aggression;
(3) Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs;
(4) Equality and mutual benefit; and
(5) Peaceful coexistence.
Reference to the Shah of Iran before 1979.
Building housing the US Defense Department in Arlington VA.
Russian term for restructuring. Essential part of policy of economic and political reforms, first introduced by Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachov in 1985.
Location of the official residence of Ireland’s president in Dublin.
Reference to use of pink as an identifying color of anti-government voters in Georgia who demonstrated successfully against President Edvard Shevardnadze and ousted him from office in November 2003.
Official residence of the Mexican president in Mexico City.
Location of the French justice ministry in Paris.
Official residence of the Brazilian president in Brasília.
Use or threat of physical harm in political conflicts.
Period of democratizing socialism or practicing “socialism with a human face” between January and 20 August 1968 when Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces invade the Czecho-Slovak Socialist Republic (CSSR) to suppress the reform movement and arrest its leaders.
Official residence of the South African president in Pretoria.
Prime Minister’s Questions
British parliamentary tradition of providing members of the House of Commons an opportunity on every Wednesday in session at noon to pose questions to the Prime Minister.
Nickname for the US Defense Department in the Pentagon building.
The great leader of Pakistan, i.e. Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948).
French foreign ministry in Paris.
Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui
National People’s Congress of China in Beijing.
Contemporary group working to obtain peace in the Near East: European Union (EU), Russia, United Nations (UN), and the United States of America (USA).
Official residence of the Italian president in Rome.
Royal palace of the King of Jordan in Amman.
Official residence of the Indian president on top of Raisina Hill in New Delhi since 1950. Formerly known as [British] Viceroy’s House since 1931.
raskol (Papua New Guinea)
Urban youth gang
Communist, social-democratic, socialist, left-wing, also pink; see also Red states (US).
The Senate of Canada.
US states in which citizens vote predominantly for the Republican Party; see also Blue states.
Serbian Republic (in Bosnia and Herzegovina).
Indonesian five year-development plan (1st: 1960/70-1973/74).
Swedish parliament in Stockholm.
Roadmap to Peace
Plan for a final and comprehensive settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict developed by the Quartet and presented to Israel and Palestine on 30 April 2003. The plan has clear phases, timelines, and benchmarks and involves reciprocal steps by the two parties in the political, security, economic, and humanitarian fields.
US Government term used for Cuba, Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Syria. Term changed to “countries of concern.” See also “Axis of Evil.”
Official residence of the Prime Minister of Sweden in Stockholm.
Parliament of Latvia in Riga.
Office of the Swedish prime minister in Stockholm.
West African countries located at the edge of the Sahara desert (“edge” Arabic).
SIDS [small island developing states] Accelerated Modalities of Action, adopted 1-4 September 2014 in Apia by the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, to achieve sustainable development.
Group formed by Ethiopia, Sudan, and Yemen in 2003 to strengthen relations among the three countries.
Non-violent resistance as advocated by Mahatma Gandhi. See Gandhi principles of non-violence.
The former communist countries of Europe, Asia and Cuba.
Polish lower house of parliament in Warsaw.
The most important international oil companies: British Petroleum, Chevron, Exxon, Gulf, Mobil, Shell, and Texaco. Now the Four Sisters.
Shaab Palace, al-
People’s Palace in Damascus (Arabic).
Iranian Revolutionary Guard (Farsi).
The founders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO): China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan.
Reference to Asia Security Summits
Official residence of the President of Nepal in Kathmandu
Japanese House of Representatives in Tokyo.
Silk Road Economic Belt
Initiative of the People’s Republic of China of September 2013 to revive the old Silk Road to connect with Eurasia to advance investment and trade. Also Belt and Road or One Belt, One Road.
Sirte I, II
I: Declaration made by the Organization of African Unity (OAU, meeting in September 1999 in Sirte, Libya, to establish the African Union (AU).
II: Declaration of founding of the African Union (AU) on 2 March 2001 in Sirte.
The 16 NATO nations and Russia.
Informal reference to Belarus, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine.
Location of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow.
Customary criteria for sovereign statehood:
(3) recognition of treaty obligations, and
(4) control over territory and population.
International year-long effort initiated by the Swedish government to suggest ways to strengthen the capacity to implement targeted sanctions by the United States and member states.
Stormont Castle in Belfast serving as seat of the administration of the British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland.
Norwegian parliament in Oslo.
Straka Academy (Strakova akademie)
Seat of government of the Czech Republic on the left bank of Vlatava River on Malá Strana in Prague.
The Ottoman Empire and its government in Constantinople. Reference to the “gate of Felicity” (Bâbüssaâde) of Topkapi Palace.
Soviet Union and the United States of America (1945-1990).
Space person, i.e., astronaut (Chinese)
The Prime Minister of Ireland.
The less developed countries.
Admonition of Hu Jintao, President of China, made on 18 December 2008 “As long as we don’t waver, don’t slack off, and don’t get sidetracked (bu zheteng), and as long as we firmly push forward reform and opening up … we are certain to be able to successfully realize this grand blueprint [of the reform] and achieve the goals we are striving for.”
"Three Represents” (san ge dai biao)#
Current official Chinese doctrine to harmonize Marxism with the free market. Enunciated by former President and Part General Secretary Jiang Zemin in February 2000. The Chinese Communist Party (CPC) must (1) Represent the most advanced productive forces, including private business; (2) Represent the most advanced culture; and (3) Represent fundamental interest of the broad masses, not only a revolutionary party.
International meetings to prepare and agree on tariffs and rules of dispute settlement and trade which led to approval of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1947 and the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1975:
1st round/Geneva Round 1947 in Geneva (12 countries)
2nd round 1949 in Annecy, France (13 countries)
3rd round 1951 in Torquay, UK (38 countries)
4th round/Geneva Round 1956 in Geneva (26 countries)
5th round/Dillon Round 1960-1961 in Geneva (26 countries)
6th round/Kennedy Round 1964-1967 in Geneva (62 countries)
7th round/Tokyo Round 1973-1979 in Geneva (102 countries)
8th round/Uruguay Round 1986-1994 in Geneva (123 countries)
9th round/Doha Round 2002-2015 in Doha, Qatar (144 countries) (failed)
Tropical colorful American fruit-eating bird (Portuguese, Tupi). Used in Brazil to refer to a member of the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB).
The Big Four, the Federal Republic of Germany and the former German Democratic Republic [German reunification].
Informal group of foreign ministers of current, previous, and future presiding governments in the European Union.
Former residence of governors of the Cape Colony which became the official residence of the South African President in Cape Town.
House of Government in Astana.
Agreement or pact, also network or system. Frequently used by current Polish government leaders to identify the “enemy”: Former communists and secret service officials but also some members of the liberal elite as well as businessmen (Polish).
Bloodless and peaceful student demonstrations in Prague on 17 November 1989 force the communist leadership to resign. End of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia.
German term to describe effort to cope and face up to Germany’s criminal acts under its Nazi government.
Parliament of Ukraine in Kiev.
Normally used to describe reluctance to intervene in foreign conflicts shown by Americans as a result of the disappointment over the outcome of the Viet Nam War.
Former residence of the Federal President of Germany in Bonn (1949-1994).
Vouli ton Ellinon
Greek Chamber of Deputies in Athens.
Reference to the former Berlin Wall (see entry) and to the wall erected by Israel separating it from Palestine.
New York financial district.
Informal cooperation incl. summit meetings, between France, Germany, and Poland.
British Parliament in London.
White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue
Official residence of the American president at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC. The Oval Office is the office of the American president in the West Wing of the White House.
Blair House: Official guest house of the American president, located on
Pennsylvania Avenue, across from the White House.
Camp David: Official retreat of the American president located near Thurmont,
Mt Weather: Alternate secure underground location for indispensable and top officials to insure continuity of government (COG) in case of attack or natural disaster at Berryville, Virginia, about 48 miles west of the capital. Currently used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
Main offices of the British government in London.
10 Downing Street: Official residence of the British prime minister and place of cabinet meetings in London.
Chequers: Country home of the British prime minister in Buckinghamshire since 1921.
Seat and official residence of the President of the United States of America at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia (DC) 20500.
White House Situation Room (WHSR)
The US national nerve center is located in the West Basement of The White House. It contains a soundproof conference room surrounded on three sides by two small offices, multiple work stations, computers and communications equipment. Staff is composed of approximately 30 personnel, organized around five Watch Teams monitoring international events around the clock. The Situation Room was established by the president after the Cuban Bay of Pigs operation in 1961. (Source: Inside The White House Situation Room, by Michael Donley, Cornelius O’Leary and John Montgomery. Washington DC: Studies in Intelligence, May 1997, pp. 7-13.)
Location of German Foreign Office in Berlin before 1933. The Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany is located at Werderscher Markt 1, 10117 Berlin.
World Economic Forum (WEF)
Week-long economic discussion held annually (January/February) in Davos Switzerland and attended by prominent political and economic world leaders. Founded in 1970 by Professor Klaus Schwab of Geneva.
World Risk Index (WRI)
Disaster risk index launched by the UN University Institute for Environment and Human Security in Bonn, Germany, in September 2011 defining risk as the interaction between a natural hazard and the vulnerability of a community. Based on four components and 28 variables:
1 Exposure to a natural hazard;
2 Susceptibility (i.e., likelihood of damage to economic, infrastructure, nutrition,
and housing conditions);
3 Capacity to cope (state of governance, disaster preparedness, early warning
systems, medical services, and social and material security levels);
4 Adaption strategies.
Originally the concept of an ideal society that provides well for its citizens. Adopted by Deng Xiaoping as “a thousand consumers bloom,” the beginning of economic liberalization (Chinese).
Yang di-Peruan Agong
Malaysian head of state elected from hereditary rulers of 13 states.
In Europe, a liberal party or a member thereof.
Preferred residence of the Spanish king, located outside Madrid near the El Pardo Mountains, about 8 km northwest of the center of the capital.
Headquarters of the central government and residence of the Communist party leader in Beijing.
Clan, horde (Kazakhstan)
# No longer in existence.
Names of official residences are included because of their frequent use as synonyms for certain governments and their officials (e.g., Quai d’Orsay for the French foreign ministry in Paris).
Sources: Government and press announcements, IO database, Le Point, United Nations (UN).
Completion: Includes information dated 7 November 2019 or earlier. Completed in November 2019.
(Replacing International and Political Terms, Global Survey, Vol. 48, No. 8O/501, November 2018.)
Published by The International Observer of Washington DC USA