ISSN: 1075-4644

Global Survey Vol. 46 No. 480/5M   July 2016

 

 

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

 

This is the 13th expanded and updated edition of this annual directory. It is designed to provide accurate and useful information on the subject matter covered. Every reasonable effort is made to include current data from authoritative sources and verify its accuracy.

 

This section lists of over 100 of the more common or significant international and regional political and security organizations and a number of selected economic groupings. Each entry contains the name of the organization, abbreviation if any, establishment, purpose, headquarters, organization, number and names of member states (date of admission when available), and websites.

 

 

 

For

Adriatic Charter—see North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Alliance of the Pacific--see Pacific Alliance

Arab League (AL)—see League of Arab States

Cartagena Group—see G-11

Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)—see Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)

Central Asian Commonwealth—see Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC)

Central Asian Cooperation Organization--see Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC)

Central Asian Economic Cooperation (CAEC)--see Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC)

Central Asian Economic Union (CAEU)--see Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC)

CIS Customs Union—see Eurasian Economic Community

Conference on Disarmament (CD)—see United Nations (UN)

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)—see Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

European Monetary Union (EMU)—see European Union (EU)

Euro-Zone—see European Union (EU)--European Monetary Union (EMU)

Francophonie—see International Organization of the Francophonie

Group of 8 (G8)/Grupo de los Ocho—see Rio Group

Group of 24 (G24)—see also Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)—see Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

Islamic Conference Organization (ICO)—see Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

Islamic Cooperation Organization – see Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

London Suppliers Group—see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

Lusophone Community—see Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries

Mediterranean Union—see Union for the Mediterranean

Mekong River Commission (MRC)--See also Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)

MERCOSUR—see Common Market of the South

Minsk Group—see Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC)—see Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)

Organization for Economic Cooperation—see Developing Eight (D-8)

Organization of Central American States/Organización de Estados Centro Americanos (ODECA)—see Central American Integration System (SICA)

Partnership for Peace (PfP)—see North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Pentagonale—see Central European Initiative (CEI)

Quadrangolare—see Central European Initiative (CEI)

Shanghai Five—see Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

Shanghai Forum—see Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

South American Community of Nations—see Union of South American Nations (UNASUR/UNASUL)

South Pacific Forum (SPF)—see Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)

Southern Common Market/Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR)—see Common Market of the South

 

Africa Free Trade Area (AFTA)/Africa Free Trade Zone (AFTZ)—see also COMESA Free Trade Area

Established on 22 October 2008 by the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the East Africa Community (EAC), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) to seek zero-rate tariffs among member countries and remove internal trade barriers.

Members (26): Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Congo (DRC), Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

 

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP)

Established on 6 June 1975 to manage preferential economic and relationship with the European Union (EU).

Treaty Basis: Lomé Convention replaced by Cotonou Agreement of 23 June 2000.

Headquarters: Brussels

Organization: Summit of Heads of State and Government, Council of Ministers, Committee of Ambassadors, Joint Parliamentary Assembly, Secretariat—headed by the Secretary General

Members (79): Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Cook Islands (2000), Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Jamaica,  Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands (2000), Mauritania, Mauritius, Micronesia (2000), Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Niue (2000), Palau (2000), Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, São Tomé e Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,  Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Meetings: Summit of Heads of State and Government, semi-annual meetings of the Council of Ministers

6-7 Nov. 1997 1st Heads of state meeting, Libreville, Gabon

Website: www.acpsec.org

 

African Union (AU)

Established on 26 May 2001 to achieve unity among the African countries and between the African people, defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity, and independence, achieve greater political and socio-economic integration. Launched at an Extraordinary Heads of State Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in September 1999 in Sirte, Libya, and adopted in July 2000 in Lomé. The Union succeeded the Organization of African Unity (OAU).

Headquarters: Addis Ababa

Organization: Assembly, Chairman, Executive Council, African Authority (replaced AU Commission in July 2009)

Members (54): Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea4, Guinea-Bissau5, Ivory Coast3, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar (readmitted on 10 July 2003)2, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania1, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, São Tomé e Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan (15 August 2011), Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Observer: United Arab Emirates (UAE) (16 March 2011).

1 Membership suspended in August 2008 following military takeover of government.   

2 Membership suspended on 20 March 2009 following the undemocratic change in government.

3 Membership suspended on 9 December 2010 until incumbent president relinquishes office.

4 Sanctions imposed following presidential elections were lifted on 10 December 2010.

5 Membership suspended on 17 April 2012 following military takeover of government.

Meetings: Annual meeting of the Assembly

8-10 July 2002 1st Ordinary Session of Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Durban, South Africa: Inaugural summit.

23-31 Jan. 2015 24th Ordinary Session of Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Addis Ababa

30-31 Jan. 2015 24th AU Summit of Heads of State and Government, Addis Ababa

10 June 2015 25th Ordinary Session of Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Cairo

7-15 June 2015 24th AU Summit of Heads of State and Government, Johannesburg, South Africa

10-18 July 2016 27th AU Summit of Heads of State and Government, Kigali

Website: www.africa-union.org

 

            Peace and Security Council Established on 25 May 2004.

Members (15): Benin*, Burundi*, Chad*, Djibouti*, Equatorial Guinea**, Ivory Coast*, Kenya**, Libya**, Mali*, Mauritania*, Namibia*, Nigeria**,    Rwanda*, South Africa*, and Zimbabwe**.

            *Two-year membership ending in March 2012.

            **Three-year membership ending in February 2013.

 

            Pan-African Parliament Inaugurated on 18 March 2004 in Addis Ababa.

 

            Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) Established on 17 April 2007.

 

Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean Andean Community/Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe  (OPANAL)

Established on 25 April 1969 to control and verify the ban on acquisition, deployment, installation, manufacture, possession, production, receipt, storage, use, and testing of nuclear weapons under the Treaty of Tlatelolco.

Headquarters: Mexico City

Organization: General Conference of Parties, Council, Secretariat—headed by the Secretary General

Signatory states (33): Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Meetings: Biennial General Conference of Parties

Website: www.opanal.org

 

Andean Community of Nations/Communidad Andina (CAN)

Established on 26 May 1969 as Andean Pact and Andean Group (CA/GA) to promote harmonious development through economic integration. Renamed on 1 October 1992.

Headquarters: Lima

Organization: Andean Council of Presidents, Andean Community Commission, General Secretariat

Members (4): Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (temporarily withdrew in April 1997). Venezuela withdrew in 2006.

Meetings: Andean Council of Presidents

26 May 1969 Signing of Cartagena Agreement, Cartagena, Colombia

Website: www.comunidadandina.org

 

            Andean Parliament

            Established on 25 October 1979.

            Membership : 25 elected delegates, incl. Chile (2015).

            Headquarters: Bogotá

            Observers (4): Mexico, Panama, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and Spain.

 

Antarctic Treaty

Signed on 1 December 1959 to preserve Antarctica.

Headquarters: Buenos Aires

Organization: Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM), General Secretariat

Signatories: (46): Argentina*, Australia*, Austria, Belarus, Belgium*, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile*, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France*, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan*, Korea (ROK), Korea (DPRK), Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand*, Norway*, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia*, Slovakia, South Africa*, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom*, United States of America*, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Consultative parties: 28

Observers: 14

Meetings: Annual Consultative Meetings

25 Jan. 1999 Ministerial meeting, 1st meeting in the Antarctic, McMurdo Station.

*Original member

Website: www.ats.org.ar

 

Arab Maghreb Union/Union du Mahgreb Arabe (UMA)

Established on 17 February 1989 to promote regional cooperation and integration.

Headquarters: Rabat

Organization: Council of the Presidency, Council of Prime Ministers, Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Consultative Council, Secretariat General—headed by the Secretary General

Members (5): Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia.

Meetings:  Council of the Presidency (Heads of State) semi-annual summit meetings

Website: www.maghrebarabe.org

 

Arctic Council

Established on 19 September 1996 to promote cooperation and coordination of action on common Arctic issues, oversee and coordinate a sustainable development program, and disseminate information, encourage education and promote interest in Arctic-related issues.

Headquarters: Tromsø, Norway

Organization: Ministerial Meeting, Secretariat—Head of Secretariat

Members: (8+6): Canada, Denmark (incl. Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, United States; Aleut International Association, Arctic Athabascan Council, Gwich in Council International, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON), and Saami Council.

Observers (12+20): China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Korea (ROK), Netherlands, Poland, Singapore, Spain, and United Kingdom; 9 Intergovernmental and Inter-Parliamentary Organizations and 11 non-government organizations. European Union (EU) pending resolution of dispute with Canada.

Meetings: Ministerial Meeting

19 Sep. 1996 1st Arctic Council meeting, Ottawa

Website: www.arctic-council.org

 

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Established on 4 November 1989 to better manage effects of growing interdependence around the Pacific Rim and sustain economic growth. Goals: trade and investment liberalization; facilitation; and economic and technical cooperation.

Headquarters: Singapore

Organization: Leader’s Meeting, Ministerial Meeting, Secretariat--headed by Executive Director, 3-year term.

Members (21): Australia*, Brunei*, Canada*, Chile, China (1991), Hong Kong (1991), Indonesia*, Japan*, Korea (ROK)*, Malaysia*, Mexico (Nov. 1993), New Zealand*, Papua New Guinea (Nov. 1993), Peru (Nov. 1998), Philippines*, Russia (Nov. 1996), Singapore*, Taiwan (ROC) (1991), Thailand*, United States*, and Vietnam (Nov. 1989).

Observers (3): Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), and Pacific Islands Forum (PIF).

* Original member.

Meetings: Annual Economic Leaders' Meeting, Ministerial Meetings, and Senior Officials Meetings

6-7 Nov. 1989 1st Ministerial Meeting, Canberra

Nov. 2015 Ministerial meeting and 23rd Annual Economic Leaders’ Meeting, Philippines

2016 Ministerial meeting and 24th Annual Economic Leaders’ Meeting, Peru

2017 Ministerial meeting and 25th Annual Economic Leaders’ Meeting, Vietnam

2018 Ministerial meeting and 26th Annual Economic Leaders’ Meeting, Papua New Guinea

2019 Ministerial meeting and 27th Annual Economic Leaders’ Meeting, Chile

2020 Ministerial meeting and 28th Annual Economic Leaders’ Meeting, Malaysia

2021 Ministerial meeting and 29th Annual Economic Leaders’ Meeting, New Zealand

2022 Ministerial meeting and 30th Annual Economic Leaders’ Meeting, Thailand         

Website: www.apec.org

 

Association of Caribbean States/Asociación de Estados del Caribe (ACS/AEC)

Established on 24 July 1994 to strengthen political, economic, and cultural regional consultation.

Treaty Basis: Treaty of Cartagena of 24 July 1994.

Headquarters: Port of Spain

Organization: Ministerial Council, General Secretariat

Members (25 +12 dependencies): Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.

Meetings: Summit meetings, Ministerial Council meetings

17-18 Aug. 1995 1st Summit meeting, Port of Prince

4 June 2016 7th Summit meeting, Havana

Website: www.acs-aec.org

 

Association of Small Island States (AOSIS)

Inter-governmental organization established in 1990 as a coalition of small island and low-lying coastal countries that share similar development challenges and concerns about the environment, especially their vulnerability to the adverse effects of global climate change.

Headquarters: None

Organization: Ambassadorial-level plenary sessions, Chairman, informal arrangement

Members (39): Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cook Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kiribati, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, São Tomé e Principe, Singapore, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

Observers (5): American Samoa, Netherlands Antilles, Guam, Puerto Rico, and US Virgin Islands.

Meetings: Ambassadorial-level plenary sessions

Website: www.aosis.org

 

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Established on 8 August 1967 to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance.

Headquarters: Jakarta

Organization: Chair, Coordination Council, Community Councils, Sectorial Ministerial Bodies,  Human Rights Commission, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General, two-year term.

Members (10): Brunei (7 January 1984), Burma (May 1997), Cambodia (admitted in May 1997, suspended, and readmitted on 30 April 1999), Indonesia*, Laos (May 1997), Malaysia*, Philippines*, Singapore*, Thailand*, and Vietnam (28 July 1995).

Pending (4): Ecuador, Korea (DPRK), Mongolia, and Russian Federation (starting in 2011).

Associate member (1): Papua New Guinea.

Observer (2): Bhutan (observer status requested in May 2001) and Timor-Leste (February 2013).

*Original member

Meetings: Annual Summit Meetings, Ministerial Meetings

23-24 Feb. 1976 1st Summit, Bali, Indonesia

6-27 Apr. 2015 26th Summit, Kuala Lumpur and Langkawi, Kedah State, Malaysia

Website: www.aseansec.org

 

            ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)*

            Established in 1993 to provide a forum for economic and regional issues.

            Members (10): ASEAN members.

            Dialog partners (17+1): Australia (1979), Bangladesh, Canada (1980), China (1996), India (1996), Japan (1978), Korea (DPRK), Korea (ROK) (1991), Mongolia, New Zealand (1979), Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia (1996), Sri Lanka, Timor Leste, United States of America (1979), European Union (1979), and the UN Development Program UNDP).        

            Meetings: Annual Regional Forum

            25 July 1994 1st Regional Forum, Bangkok.

            8 May 2016 23rd  Regional Forum, Villa Santi Resort, Luang Prabang, Laos

            *Also referred to as ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conferences (ASEAN-PMC).

            Website: www.aseanregionalforum.org

 

            East Asia Summit (EAS)

            14 Dec. 2005 1st Summit, Kuala Lumpur

            22 Nov. 2015 10th Summit, Kuala Lumpur

 

Australia Group (AG)

Established in 1985 to coordinate export controls related to biological and chemical weapons.

Headquarters: Canberra

Organization: Plenary Meeting, Chairman (Australia holds informal chairmanship)

Members (42): Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia (2007), Cyprus, Czech Republic (1994), Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea (ROK), Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico (2013), Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland (1994), Portugal, Romania, Slovakia (1994), Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, and the European Commission (EC).

Observer (1): Singapore.

Meetings: Plenary Meetings

Website: www.australiagroup.net

 

Baltic Assembly (BA)

Established on 1 December 1990 to promote cooperation among the parliaments of Estonia, Lithuania.

Headquarters: Riga

Organization: Chairman of the Presidium, Vice Chairman, committees,

Members (3): National parliaments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania each represented by 20 appointed members.

Meetings: Spring and fall meetings of the Assembly.

Website: www.baltasam.org

 

Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC)

Established on 11 January 1993 as Barents Sea Euro-Arctic Council (BSEAC) to serve as forum for intergovernmental cooperation in the region.

Basis: Declaration of Cooperation of 11 January 1993.

Headquarters: Kirkenes, Norway

Organization: Barents Regional Council, International Secretariat—Head of Secretariat

Members (7): Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the European Commission (EC).

Observers (9): Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, United Kingdom, United States of America.

Meetings: Semi-annual Session of the Regional Council

Website: www.beac.st

 

BENELUX Economic Union (BLEU)

Established on 3 February 1958, effective 1 November 1960, to develop closer economic cooperation and integration.

Treaty Basis: 17 June 2008.

Headquarters: Brussels

Organization: Parliament, Court of Justice, Ministerial Committee, Council, Secretariat General--headed by the Secretary General

Members (3): Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.

Website: www.benelux.be; www.benelux-parl.org/html/FR/accueil.htm (BENELUX Parliament)

 

Biological Weapons Convention Implementation Support Unit (BWC ISU)

Established on 8 December 2006 by the 6th Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) to assist states to strengthen the implementation of the Convention and to reduce the threat posed by biological weapons. The ISU became operational on 2 August 2007.

Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

Organization: Conference of States Party to the Convention, Chairman, Implementation Support Unit—Head of ISU

States Parties (163): Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea- Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,  Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea (ROK), Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, San Marino, São Tomé e Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vatican City State, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.

Signatories (13): Burma, Burundi, Central African Republic, Egypt, Guyana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Malawi, Nepal, Somalia, Syria, and Tanzania.

Non-Signatory States (19): Andorra, Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Guinea, Israel, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Micronesia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Niue, Samoa, and Tuvalu.

Meetings: Conference of States Party to the Convention

Website: www.unog.ch

 

Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas /Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América (ALBA)*

Established on 14 December 2004 by Cuba and Venezuela, based upon a model of politic, economic and social integration of countries, as the Caribbean and Latin

American with socialist and social democratic governments, as a new scheme of integration based on principles of cooperation, solidarity and complementariness and it arises as an alternative to the neo liberal model.

Organization: Summit of Heads of State, Council of Social Movements

Members (8): Antigua and Barbuda (24 June 2009), Bolivia (29 April 2006), Cuba, Dominica (Jan. 2008), Ecuador (24 June 2009), Honduras (25 August 2008, withdrew on 12 January 2010), Nicaragua (Jan. 2007), and St. Vincent and the Grenadines (24 June 2009), Venezuela.

Observers (4): Grenada, Haiti, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

Meetings: Summit of Heads of State

14 Dec. 2004 1st Summit of Heads of State (Cuba and Venezuela), Havana

17 Mar. 2015 14th Summit of Heads of State, Caracas

*Originally known as Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas.

Website: www.alianzabolivariana.org

 

BRICS States

Group of emerging countries formed on 16 June 2009 to obtain greater influence in the international financial system and reduce the dominant role of the US Dollar.

Partners (5): Brazil, China, India, Russia, and South Africa (14 April 2011). Indonesia announced on 7 March 2012 its intention to join BRICS.

Meetings: Summit of BRIC Heads of State

16 June 2009 1st Summit, Yekaterinburg, Russia

8-9 July 2016 7th Summit, Ufa, Bashkortostan Republic, Russia

 

            New Development Bank

            Established July 2014

            Headquarters: Shanghai, China

 

Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

Established on 4 July 1973, effective 1 August 1973, to increase economic and political integration of member states.

Treaty Basis: Treaty of Chaguaramas of 1973.

Headquarters: Georgetown

Organization: Conference of Heads of Government, Community Council, Chairman, rotating every 6 months, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (15): Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti (no. 15 on 6 July 2002), Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago.

Associate members (5): Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Observers (7): Aruba, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rica, and Venezuela.

Meetings: Conference of Heads of Government

Website: www.caricom.org

 

Central American Integration System/Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (SICA)

Established on 29 October 1993 as successor to the Central American Common Market/Mercado Commun Centroamericana (CACM/MCCA) which was established on 13 December 1960, effective 3 June 1961, and reactivated in 1991to promote economic, social, cultural, and political integration.

Treaty Basis: San Salvador Charter of 12 December 1962 and Tegucigalpa Protocol of 13 December 1991.

Headquarters: Guatemala City

Organization: Meeting of Presidents, General Secretariat—headed by the SICA Secretary General, Secretariat for the Central American Economic Integration (SIECA)—headed by the Secretary General

Members: (8): Belize, Dominican Republic (Oct. 2013), Costa Rica*, El Salvador*, Guatemala*, Honduras*, Nicaragua*, and Panama.

*Founding member

Observers: Mexico, Spain, and Taiwan.

Meetings: Meeting of Presidents

11 Dec. 1992 13th Central American summit, Panama

29 Jan. 1997 Central American summit, Tegucigalpa

17 June 2000 Central American summit, Panama

1 Apr. 2005 Central American summit, Tegucigalpa

9 Mar.2015 Central American summit, Guatemala City

Website: www.sica.int

 

            Secretariat for the Central American Economic Integration (SIECA)

            Website: www.sieca.org.gt                

 

Central European Free Trade Agreement (Area) (CEFTA)

Established on 21 December 1992, effective 1 March 1993, to prepare member states for economic integration by removing internal trade barriers.

Treaty Basis: Central European Free Trade Agreement of 21 December 1992.

Members (8): Albania (2007), Bosnia and Herzegovina (2007), Croatia (2003), Kosovo (2007), Macedonia (2006), Moldova (2007), Montenegro (2007), and Serbia (2007).

Meetings: Heads of government summit

13-14 Sep. 1996 Heads of government summit meeting, Jasna, Slovakia

6-7 Nov. 2003 Heads of government summit meeting, Slovenia: discussion of future economic CICA of cooperation. See also Visegrád Group

 

Central European Initiative (CEI)

Initially formed as Alps-Adriatic Work Group in 1978. Established on 12 November 1989 as Quadrangolare, expanded to Pentagonale in May 1990, and on 27 July 1991 to Hexagonale. With the admission of independent successor states to Yugoslavia, CEI was established in 1992, to promote regional cooperation in planning, financing, and execution of national and international development programs.

Headquarters: Trieste, Italy

Organization: Conference of Heads of Government, Executive Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (18): Albania, Austria* (1978), Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina (July 1992), Bulgaria, Croatia (July 1992), Czech Republic (May 1990), Hungary* (1978), Italy* (1978), Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland (July 1991), Romania, Serbia (1996 FRY), Slovakia, Slovenia (July 1972), and Ukraine (1996).

*Founding member

Meetings: Annual Conference of Heads of Government

May 1994 1st Conference of Heads of Government, Prague

Website: www.ceinet.org

 

Centrist Democrat International (CDI)

Founded 1961 in Santiago, Chile, as the global international political center-right group dedicated to the promotion of Christian democracy. Initially known as Christian Democrat World Union (WUCD), it was later renamed Christian Democrat and People's Parties International, and from 1999 until 2001 the Christian Democrat International.

Headquarters: Brussels

Members (65)

Observers (11)

Meetings: Biennial Leaders’ Meeting

 

Collective Security Treaty Organization/Organizatsii Dogovora o Kollektivnoy Bezopasnosti (CSTO/ODKB)

Established on 14 May 1992, effective on 20 April 1994, to increase military and security cooperation among member states.

Treaty Basis: Collective Security Treaty (CST) of 15 May 1992 and 2003 and Charter approved on 7 October 2002.

Headquarters: Moscow

Organization: Collective Security Council, Permanent Council, Parliamentary Assembly, Military Committee, General Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (7): Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (withdrew in 1998, returned in 2006). Azerbaijan and Georgia withdrew in 2000.

Meetings: Collective Security Council Summit meetings of Heads of State and Government

14 May 1992 1st Collective Security Council Summit Meeting, Moscow: Signing of Collective Security Treaty (DKB).

14-15 Sep. 2015 Collective Security Council meeting, Dushanbe

21 Dec. 2015 Collective Security Council Summit meeting, Moscow

Website: www.dkb.gov.ru

 

            Collective Operational Reaction Forces

            Agreed on 4 February 2009.

 

Colombo Plan (CP)

Established on 1 July 1951 to promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific region.

Headquarters: Colombo

Organization: Consultative Committee, Council, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (25): Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Korea (ROK), Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United States of America, and Vietnam.

Meetings: Biennial meetings of Consultative Committee.

Website: www.colombo-plan.org

 

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)

Established on 31 October 2000 to form a free trade area for Eastern and Southern Africa.

Headquarters: Lusaka

Organization: COMESA Authority, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (19): Burundi (1 Jan. 2004), Comoros, Congo (DR), Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda (1 Jan. 2004), Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, (Tanzania 2000)-Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Meetings:  Annual meeting of the COMESA Authority

18-19 May 2000 Heads of state and government meeting, Mauritius

23-24 Nov. 2012 16th Summit meeting, Kampala

Website: www.comesa.int

 

            COMESA Free Trade Area*

            Established on 31October 2000 to seek zero-rate tariffs among member          

            countries and remove internal trade barriers.

            *Formerly also referred to as Africa Free Trade Area, a new trade zone               

since agreement was reached on 22 October 2008--see Africa Free Trade Area (AFTA).

 

Common Market of the South/Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR)

Established on 26 March 1991 to increase regional economic cooperation. Common market formed on 1 January 1995.

Headquarters: Montevideo

Organization: Council of the Common Market, Common Market Group, MERCOSUR Parliament, Arbitration Court, Secretariat--headed by Director

Members (6): Argentina, Bolivia (17 July 2015), Brazil, Paraguay (suspended 29 June 2012, readmitted 11 July 2013), Uruguay, and Venezuela (31 July 2012).

Associate member (4): Chile (Oct. 1996), Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Observer (1): Mexico.

Meetings: Annual Council of the Common Market Meeting

26 Mar. 1991 1st Summit of Heads of State, Asunción

16-17 July 2015 48th Summit of Heads of State, Brasília

Website: www.mercosur.org.uy

 

Common Monetary Area (CMA)

Regional monetary union of Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland.

 

Commonwealth of Independent States/Sodruzhestvo Nyezavisimykh Gosudarstv (CIS/SNG)

Established on 8 December 1991, expanded on 21 December 1991, to coordinate relations between states of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

Headquarters: Minsk

Organization: Council of Heads of States, Council of Prime Ministers, CIS Interparliamentary Assembly, Technical Secretariat--headed by Executive Secretary

Members (11): Armenia, Azerbaijan (rejoined Sep. 1977), Belarus*, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia*, Ukraine*1, Tajikistan (26 Feb. 1999), Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Georgia was a member from 22 October 1993 until its withdrawal on 18 Aug. 2009.

*Founding member

1 Ukraine resumed full participation in CIS, the government announced on 29 November 2010.

Meetings: Semi-annual meeting of Council of Heads of States

29 May 2015 Council of Heads of Governments meeting, Borovye, Kazakhstan

7 June 2016 Council of Heads of Governments meeting, Bishkek

Website: www.cis.minsk.by

 

Commonwealth of Nations (C)

Established 31 December 1931, renamed 22 October 1949, to foster multinational assistance and cooperation.

Headquarters: London

Organization: Commonwealth Heads of Government, Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (52): Antigua and Barbuda (1 Nov. 1981), Australia (31 Dec. 1931), Bahamas (10 July 1973), Bangladesh (18 April 1972), Barbados (30 Nov. 1966), Belize (21 Sep. 1981), Botswana (30 Sep. 1966), Brunei (1 Jan. 1984), Cameroon (Nov. 1995), Canada (31 Dec. 1931), Cyprus (13 March 1961), Dominica  (3 Nov. 1978) , Fiji (10 Oct. 1970, readmitted Sep. 1997; suspended 2000, readmitted 21 Dec. 2001; suspended 8 Dec. 2006; suspended 1 September 2009; readmitted 27 September 2014), Gambia (18 Feb. 1965, withdrew Oct. 2013), Ghana (6 March 1957), Grenada (7 Feb. 1974), Guyana (26 May 1966), India (15 Aug. 1947), Jamaica (6 Aug. 1962), Kenya (12 Dec. 1963), Kiribati (12 July 1979), Lesotho (4 Oct. 1966), Malawi (6 July 1964), Malaysia (31 Aug. 1957), Maldives (9 July 1982, withdrew 13 Oct. 2015), Malta (21 Sep. 1964), Mauritius (12 March 1968), Mozambique (Nov. 1995), Namibia (21 Mar. 1990), Nauru (31 Jan. 1968), New Zealand (312 Dec. 1931), Nigeria (1 Aug. 1960; suspended Nov. 1995, reinstated), Pakistan (15 Aug. 1947, withdrew 1972-1989, suspended 23 Sep. 2007, reinstated on 12 May 2008), Papua New Guinea (16 Sep. 1975), Rwanda (29 Nov 2009), Saint Kitts and Nevis (10 Sep. 1983), Saint Lucia (23 Feb. 1979), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (27 Oct. 1979), Samoa (28 Aug. 1970), Seychelles (28 June 1976), Sierra Leone (27 April 1961, suspended June 1997, reinstated), Singapore (15 Oct. 1965), Solomon Islands (7 July 1978), South Africa (11 Dec. 1931, withdrew 1961-1994), Sri Lanka (4 Feb. 1948), Swaziland (6 Sep. 1968), Tanzania (9 Dec. 1961), Tonga (4 June 1970), Trinidad and Tobago (31 Aug. 1962), Tuvalu (1 Oct. 1978), Uganda (9 Oct. 1962), United Kingdom (31 Dec. 1931), Vanuatu (30 July 1980), and Zambia (24 Oct. 1964). Zimbabwe (18 Apr. 1980) was suspended in March 2002 and withdrew on 7 December 2003.

Meetings: Biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGM)

27-29 Nov. 2015 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Valetta

Website: www.thecommonwealth.org

 

            Parliamentary Conference (PC)

Established 1911 to promote the advancement of parliamentary democracy.

Secretariat in London

30 Sep.-8 Oct. 2015 61st Conference, Islamabad (cancelled on 21 August 2015 after Pakistan withdrew from hosting.)

 

 

Community of Democracies (CD)

Established on 27 June 2000 as an inter-governmental organization to uphold core democratic principles and practices.

Headquarters: Warsaw

Organization: Governing Council

Members (25): Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Finland, Hungary,  India, Italy, Japan, Korea (ROK), Lithuania, Mali1, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Sweden, United States of America, and Uruguay.

1 Suspended on 10 July 2012.

Meetings: Ministerial Conference

Website: http://www.community-democracies.org/

 

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States/Communidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños/Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos (CELAC)

Established on 23 February 2010 to further integration and lessen US influence and power in the region. The Community is to replace the Rio Group and the Caribbean Community and will exclude Canada and the United States of America.

Headquarters: None

Organization: Summit of Heads of State

Members (33): Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Meetings: Summit of Heads of State

23 Feb 2010 23rd Rio Group-Caribbean Community Unity Summit, Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, Mexico

28-29 Jan. 2015 3rd Summit meeting, San Antonio de Belén, Costa Rica

27-29 Jan. 2016 4th Summit of Heads of States, Quito

Website: http://www.celac.org

 

Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries/Communidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP)

Established on 17 July 1996 to promote the Portuguese language and economic, technological, scientific, and cultural cooperation.

Headquarters: Lisbon

Organization: Conference of Heads of State and Government, Ministerial Council, Permanent Consultation Committee, Parliamentary Assembly, Executive Secretariat--headed by Executive Secretary

Members (8): Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé e Principe, and Timor-Leste (since 2002).

Meetings: Biennial or triennial meeting of the Conference of Heads of State and Government

17 July 1996 Constitutional summit meeting, Lisbon

Website: www.cplp.org

 

            Portuguese-Speaking African Countries (PALOPS)

            Established in 1979.

Members (5): Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and São Tomé e Principe.

            Meetings: Summit meeting

            10 April 2001 1st Summit meeting, Luanda

 

Community of Sahel-Saharan States/Communité des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens (COMESSA/CEN-SAD)

Established on 4 February 1998 to create an economic union.

Headquarters: Tripoli

Organization: Conference of Leaders and Heads of State, Executive Council, General Secretariat—headed by the Secretary General

Members (28): Benin (March 2002), Burkina Faso*, Central African Republic, Chad*, Comoros, Djibouti (Feb. 2000), Egypt (Feb. 2001), Eritrea, Gambia (Feb. 2000), Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Libya*, Kenya, Mali*, Mauritania, Morocco (Feb. 2001), Niger*, Nigeria (Feb. 2001), São Tomé e Principe, Senegal (Feb 2000), Sierra Leone, Somalia (Feb. 2001), Sudan*, Togo (March 2002), Tunisia (Feb. 2001).

Meetings: Annual Summit Meeting of the Conference of Leaders and Heads of State

*Founding member

Website: www.cen-sad.org

 

Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)

Established on 4 June 2002 to promote regional cooperation, resolve disputes, and combat international violence.

Headquarters: Almaty, Kazakhstan

Organization: Meeting of Heads of State and Government, CICA Chairman, Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Secretariat—headed by Executive Director

Members (17): Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, and Uzbekistan.

Organizations (3): United Nations, League of Arab States (KAS), and the Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Observers (4+2): Indonesia, Japan, Ukraine, and the United States of America; OSCE, UN.

Meetings: Summit Meeting of Heads of State and Government, every 4 years

Website: www.s-cica.org

 

Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking Countries (CCTS)

The 1st Summit of Heads of Turkic-speaking states was established on 30 October 1992 to promote economic and cultural cooperation. Formation of the Cooperation Council was announced at the 9th Summit on 2-3 October 2009.

Headquarters: Istanbul

Organization: Council of Heads of State, Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Council of Elders, Council of Senior Public Servants of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Permanent Secretariat—headed by Secretary General serving for a 3-year term, Turkic-Speaking Countries Parliamentary Assembly, Joint Administration of Turkic Culture and Arts (Türksoy)

Members (6): Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Meetings: Council of Heads of State summit meeting

*30-31 Oct. 1992 Turkic Republics’ 1st Summit of Council of Heads of State, Ankara

*Turkic-Speaking Countries Cooperation Council (1992-2009)

Website: www.turksoy.org.tr    Joint Administration of Turkic Culture and Arts (Türksoy)

 

Council of Europe (CE)

Established on 5 May 1949, effective 3 August 1949, to advance the integration of the people of Europe and peace.

Headquarters: Strasbourg, France

Organization: Committee of Ministers, Parliamentary Assembly (PACE), European Court of Human Rights, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General elected by PACE for a 5-year term (Next election in October 2015).

Members (47): Albania, Andorra, Armenia (no. 42 on 25 Jan. 2001), Austria, Azerbaijan (no. 43 on 25 Jan. 2001), Belgium, Bosnia Herzegovina (no. 44 on 24 Apr. 2002), Bulgaria, Croatia (no. 40 on 6 Nov. 1996), Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia (27 Apr. 1999), Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro (no. 47 on 11 May 2007), Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (28 Feb. 1996), San Marino, Serbia and Montenegro (no. 45 on 24 Sep. 2002, effective 3 Apr. 2003), Serbia (no. 44 on 3 Apr. 2003), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and United Kingdom; EC Commission.

Observers (5): Canada, Holy Sea, Japan, Mexico, and the United States of America.

Candidate (1): Belarus (PACE suspended high-level contacts in April 2010 because of a lack of progress toward CE standards.)

Meetings: Semi-annual meetings of Committee of Ministers (foreign ministers)

9 Oct. 1993 1st Heads of State and Government Summit meeting, Vienna

Website: www.coe.int

           

Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)

Established on 5 March 1992 to safeguard and allocate fish resources and to promote economic growth in the region.

Legal Basis: Declaration of Copenhagen of 5 March 1992.

Headquarters: Stockholm

Organization: Presidency, rotating annually, Permanent International Secretariat--headed by Director General

Members (11): Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, and Sweden.

Observers (6+2): France, Italy, Netherlands, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and the United States of America; Commission of the European Communities (EC) and North Western Parliamentary Association.

Meetings: Baltic Sea States Summit Meetings, CBSS Ministerial Meetings

5-6 Mar. 1992 1st Baltic Sea States Summit, Copenhagen: Founding meeting.

Website: www.cbss.org

 

Council of the Entente

Established on 29 May 1959 to coordinate policies and promote economic and social development.

Headquarters: Abidjan

Organization: Council, Ministerial Council, Secretariat

Members (5): Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Niger and Togo.

 

Danube Commission (DC)

Established on 18 August 1948, effective 11 May 1949, to insure and improve navigation and shipping and supervision of navigation aids.

Headquarters: Budapest

Organization: President, Commission, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (9): Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia.

Observers (4): Croatia, Germany, Moldova, and Turkey (April 2001).

Meetings: Commission, semi-annual meetings

27-28 Nov. 2012 1st Annual Forum of the of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region, Regensburg, Germany

28-29 Oct. 2013 2nd Annual Forum, Bucharest, Romania

Website: www.danubecom-intern.org

 

 

Developing Eight (D-8)/Organization for Economic Cooperation

The arrangement for development cooperation among participating countries was announced through the Istanbul Declaration of Summit of Heads of State/Government on 15 June 1997.

Headquarters: Istanbul, Turkey

Organization: Summit of Heads of State and Government, Council, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Participating countries (8): Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan and Turkey.

Meetings: Biennial Summit of Heads of State and Government

15 June 1997 1st Summit of Heads of State and Government, Istanbul, Turkey

Website: www.developing8.org

 

East African Community (EAC)

Established on 1 December 1967 as successor to East African Common Services Organisation (EASCO) (1961-1967) to create a free trade area and adopt a common currency. Union collapsed in 1977 when members followed divergent economic policies. Relaunched on 15 January 2001. The EAC Customs Union took effect on 1 January 2010.

Headquarters: Arusha, Tanzania

Organization: Heads of State Summit, Council of Ministers, East African Legislative Assembly, East African Court of Justice, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General who is serving a 5-year term

Members (5): Burundi (Nov. 2006), Kenya, Rwanda (Nov. 2006), Tanzania, and Uganda.

Meetings: Heads of State Summit Meetings

30 Nov. 1999 Heads of state of the three members meet in Arusha, Tanzania, and sign a treaty to restart the EAC.

30 Nov. 2001 East African Assembly is inaugurated in Arusha. It is composed of 27 elected members and five ex officio members.

Website: www.eac.int

           

            East African Customs Union (EACU), effective 1 January 2005.

           

            East African Community (EAC) Common Market, effective 1 July 2010.

 

            East African Monetary Union, agreed on 30 November 2013.

 

East Asian Community/East Asian Summits (EAS)

Forum of Asian, Australian, Russian, and US leaders started in 2005.

Organization: Summit of Heads of State and Government

Members (16): Australia, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (ROK), Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States of America, and Vietnam

Meetings: Summit of Heads of State and Government

 

Economic Community of Central African States/Communité des Etats de l’ Afrique Centrale (ECCAS/CEEAC)

Originally established on 8 December 1964, effective 1 January 1966, as Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) to advance the establishment of a Central African Common Market. In June 1999 it was succeeded by the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa/Communité Economique et Monetaire des Etats de l’Afrique Centrale (EMCCA/CEMAC) and combined with ECCAS which was established on 18 October 1983 to form a common market and remove trade barriers.

Headquarters: Libreville

Organization: Council of Ministers, Secretariat General--headed by Secretary General serving a 4-year term

Members (10): Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Equatorial Guinea (suspended on 10 January 2009), Gabon, Rwanda, and São Tomé and Principe.

Meetings: Conference of Heads of State and Government

 

Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa/Communité Economique et Monetaire des Etats de l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC)

1991 Heads of State and Government session, Libreville: Decision to set up Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)

4-5 July 1996 31st UDEAC Heads of State and Government session, Libreville

Website: www.ceeac-eccas.org

 

Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries/Communité Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL)

Established on 20 September 1976 to promote regional economic integration.

Headquarters: Gisenyi, Rwanda

Organization: Conference of Heads of States, Council of Ministers, Permanent Executive Secretariat

Members (3): Burundi, Congo (DR), and Rwanda.

 

Economic Community of West African States/Communité Economique des Etats de l’ Afrique de l’Ouest (ECOWAS/CEAO)

Established on 28 May 1975 to promote regional economic cooperation and security.

Headquarters: Abuja

Organization, Summit of the Authority of Heads of State and Government, Chairman, Commission, headed by the President; Community Parliament, Community Court of Justice,

Members (15): Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea 9suspended on 10 January 2010), Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast1, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. Mauritania announced its withdrawal on 27 December 1999 and left ECOWAS on 27 December 2000.

1 Suspended on 7 December 2010 for incumbent president’s failure to vacate office.

Meetings: Summit of the Authority of Heads of State and Government

Website: www.ecowas.int

 

            ECOWAS Free Trade Area

            Established on 6 November 2001.

            Members (7): Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria.

 

Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)

Established as Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) in 1964 and dissolved in 1979. Established on 29 January 1985 to promote regional cooperation in communications, cultural affairs, economic development, tourism, trade, and transportation.

Headquarters: Tehran

Organization: Council of Ministers, Secretariat General--headed by Secretary General

Members (10): Iran*, Pakistan* and Turkey*. Since February 1992: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Associate member (1): Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

*Original member

Meetings: ECO Summit Meetings

1992 1st Summit meeting, Tehran

Website: www.ecosecretariat.org

 

 

 

Eurasian Economic Union (EAEC) (Evraziyskom Ekonomicheskom  Soyuze (EES)

Established on 29 May 2014 as a single market based on the Customs Union  of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation.

Treaty Basis: Treaty of the Eurasian Economic Union of 29 May 2014

Headquarters: Eurasian Commission in Moscow, Court in Minsk.

Organization: Eurasian Commission, Eurasian Commission Council, Court of the EEU

Members (5): Armenia (2 Jan. 2015), Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (12 Aug. 2015), and the Russian Federation.

Meetings: Supreme Eurasian Economic Council

29 May 2014 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council meeting, Astana

10 Oct. 2014 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council meeting, Minsk

23 Dec. 2014 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council meeting, Moscow

21 Dec. 2015 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council meeting, Moscow

Note: The Union’s forerunner Eurasian Economic Community operated from 10 October 2000-1 January 2015 (See Defunct Organizations).

 

            Eurasian Development Bank

 

Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)

Established on 20 December 1991 as North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC), a NATO affiliate, to provide a forum for the discussion of mutual political and security cooperation. Replaced by the EAPC on 30 May 1997.

Headquarters: Brussels

Organization: Council

Members (28+22): Albania (5 June 1992), Armenia (10 March 1992), Austria, Azerbaijan (10 March 1992), Belarus (10 March 1992), Belgium*, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria*, Canada*, Croatia, Czechoslovakia*, Denmark*, Estonia*, Finland, France*, Georgia (5 June 1992), Germany*, Greece*, Hungary*, Iceland*, Ireland, Italy*, Kazakhstan (10 March 1992), Kyrgyzstan (10 March 1992), Latvia*, Lithuania*, Luxembourg*, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova (10 March 1992), Montenegro, Netherlands*, Norway*, Poland*, Portugal*, Romania*, Russia (USSR*), Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain*, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan (10 March 1992), Turkey*, Turkmenistan (10 March 1992), Ukraine (10 March 1992), United Kingdom*, United States of America*, and Uzbekistan.

*NACC original member

Meetings: Summit Meeting of Heads of State and Government, Annual meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs

20 Dec. 1991 North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) Inaugural meeting Brussels

Website: www.nato.int

 

European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

Established on 4 January 1960, effective 3 May 1960, to promote expansion of trade.

Headquarters: Geneva

Organization: Council, Court, General Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (4): Iceland (1970), Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. Austria, Finland, and Sweden left in January 1995 to join the European Union. Croatia-EFTA free trade zone established in June 2001 and effective in 2002.

Website: www.efta.int

 

European Union (EU)

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was established on 23 July 1952 to form a common market for coal, steel, and scrap metal. The European Nuclear Community (EURATOM) and the European Community (EC) were established on 1 January 1958 to promote the peaceful development of nuclear energy and research and to form a common market for agricultural and industrial products. The European Union (EU) was established on 7 February 1992 to form a common market, establish a common currency, develop a common foreign and security policy, and coordinate policy.

Treaty Basis: Treaty of Paris of 18 April 1951 (effective 23 July 1952,Treaty of Rome of 25 March 1957 (expired on 23 July 2002), Maastricht Treaty of  7 February 1992, Treaty of Amsterdam of 17 June 1997, the Treaty of Nice of 9 December 2000, and the Treaty of Lisbon of 1 December 2009.

Headquarters: Brussels

Organization: European Council, President, Council of the EU, European Parliament (EP), European Commission (EC), Court of Justice of the European Communities

Members (28): Austria (1984), Belgium* (1952), Bulgaria (2007), Croatia (1 July 2013), Cyprus (1 May 2004), Czech Republic (1 May 2004), Denmark (1973), Estonia (1 May 2004), Finland (1995), France* (1952), Germany* (1952), Greece (1981), Hungary (1 May 2004), Ireland (1973), Italy* (1952), Latvia (1 May 2004), Lithuania (1 May 2004), Luxembourg* (1952), Malta (1 May 2004), Netherlands* (1952), Poland (1 May 2004), Portugal (1986), Romania (2007), Slovakia (1 May 2004), Slovenia (1 May 2004), Spain (1986), Sweden (1995), and United Kingdom (1973).

Candidates (5): Albania (28 Apr. 2009), Iceland (submitted on 17 July 2009; accession talks started on 27 July 2010), Macedonia (26 Feb. 2004), Montenegro (15 Dec. 2008), Serbia (Stabilization and Association Agreement signed on 29 April 2008. Application submitted on 22 December 2009.), and Turkey (13 April 1987). Switzerland (26 May 1992, application disapproved by referendum of 6 December 1992). Date of application is shown in parentheses.

*Original member

Applicants: Iceland (withdrawn 13 Mar. 2015), Switzerland (1992 application withdrawn on 15 June 2016).

Withdrawal: A popular referendum held in the United Kingdom on 23 June 2016 on leaving the European Union was approved by 51.9 percent of votes cast.s

Meetings: European Council (Heads of State and Government) in Brussels unless otherwise noted, Council of the EU (Ministerial)

European Council Meetings:

2015: 12-13 Feb. Brussels; 19-20 Mar. Brussels; 24 Apr. (extraordinary), Brussels; 22 June, Brussels; 25-26 June, Brussels; 7 July (informal), Brussels; 7 July

2016: 18-19  Feb. Brussels; 7 Mar. Brussels; 17-18 Mar. Brussels; 28-29 June Brussels;

Website: http://europa.eu

 

            European Banking Authority (EBA) (Established on 1 January 2011)

 

European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) (Established on 1 January 2011)

           

            European Securities and Market Authority (ESMA) (Established on 1 January 2011)

 

            European Monetary Union (EMU)

            Introduction of the Euro (€) currency started on 1 January 1999. Established on 1 January 2002 to introduce a single currency for member countries of the European Union (EU)-Euro zone. Use of national currencies in trade in the Euro zone ended on 28 February 2002 and national currencies were phased out on 30 June 2002.

            Treaty Basis: Maastricht Treaty of 7 February 1992.

            Organization: EU Ministers of Economy and Finance

            Euro Zone (18): Austria*, Belgium*, Cyprus (1 January 2008), Estonia (1 January 2012), Finland*, France*, Germany*, Greece (1 January 2001), Ireland*, Italy*, Luxembourg*, Latvia (13 March 2014), Malta (1 January 2008), Netherlands*, Portugal*, Slovakia (1 January 2009), Slovenia (1 January 2007), and Spain*.

            Prospective member: Lithuania (2015).

            *Original member state since 1 January 1999.

 

            Eastern Partnership

Program launched on 7 May 2009 to serve as forum on free trade deals, strategic partnership agreements, and travel with countries in Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus.

            Participants (6): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine.

            Meetings: Summit meeting

            7 May 2009 European Council Eastern Partnership Summit, Prague   

            28-29 Nov. 2013 EU-Eastern Partnership Summit, Lithuania

            21-22 May 2015 EU-Eastern Partnership Summit, Riga

 

            Northern Dimension (ND)

            Established 1999 to promote cooperation in the Baltic countries, Russian, and Scandinavia.

Participants: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden; Arctic Council, Barents Euro-Arctic Council, Council of Baltic Sea States, Nordic Council of Ministers

            Meetings: Ministerial meetings

           

Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC)

The Forum was established in October 2000 to strengthen cooperation between China and Africa and “to jointly meet the challenge of economic globalization and to promote common development.”

Headquarters: Beijing

Organization: Summit of Heads of State and Government, Ministerial Conference, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (50): Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Meetings: Ministerial Conference

10-12 Oct. 2000 1st Ministerial Conference, Beijing

Website: www.focac.org/eng/

 

Franc Zone (FZ/CFA)

The Franc zone was first established on 9 September 1939 and succeeded by the French colonial franc (Franc des Colonies Françaises d’ Afrique/CFA) on 25 December 1945. The currency was renamed Franc of the African Financial Community (Franc de la Communauté Financière Africaine) in April 1949.

Members (15): Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo (B), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

 

Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF)

Established as an intergovernmental organization in 2001 to represent the world’s leading gas producers, to promote their mutual interests and
dialog between gas producers and consumers. Its charter was adopted on 23 December 2008.

Liaison Office: Doha, Qatar

Organization: Ministerial Meeting, Chairman, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (11): Algeria, Bolivia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea (Dec. 2008), Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Russia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.

Observers (2): Kazakhstan, Netherlands, and Norway.

Meetings: Ministerial Meetings

Website: www.gecforum.org

 

Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF)

Established on 22 September 2011 as an informal, multilateral counterterrorism platform to identify critical civilian counterterrorism needs.

Organization: Coordinating Committee

Members (30): Algeria*, Australia*, Canada*, China*, Colombia*, Denmark*, Egypt*, France*, Germany*, India*, Indonesia*, Italy*, Japan*, Jordan*, Morocco*, Netherlands*, New Zealand*, Nigeria*, Pakistan*, Qatar*, Russia*, Saudi Arabia*, South Africa*, Spain*, Switzerland*, Turkey*, United Arab Emirates*, United Kingdom*, United States of America*, and European Union (EU)*.

 

Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)

The subregion was established in 1992 with the assistance of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to promote cooperation within the six Mekong countries, specifically in economy, environmental protection, irrigation, and social development.

Headquarters: Manila (Asian Development Bank/ADB)

Organization: Ministerial Meeting

Members (6): Burma, Cambodia, China (Yunnan Province), Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Meetings: Summit Meeting, Ministerial Meeting

Website: www.adb.org/GMS/

 

Group of 3 (G3)

Established on 13 June 1994, effective 1 January 1995, to coordinate free trade policy. It was relaunched on 8 April 2001.

Treaty Basis: Free Trade Agreement of 13 June 1994.

Members (3): Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela.

 

Group of 8 (G8)/Group of 7 (G7)/Group of 5 (G5)

Established initially as Group of Five (G5) at a conference on 15-17 November 1975 at the invitation of the President of France to hold informal discussions of economic matters. With the addition of Italy, the Group became G6. It gradually expanded to become the annual world economic summit and since 1983 included political and security issues on its agenda. In 1995, it was expanded to Group of 7 and since 17 May 1998 became officially known as Group of 8.

Headquarters: none

Organization: none

Members (8): Canada (22 September 1985), France*, Germany*, Italy, Japan*, Russia (first invited in 1991; full member since June 2002 until suspension in March 2015 over the annexation of Crimea), United Kingdom*, and United States*; EC Commission (1977).

*Original member of Group of Five (G5)

Meetings: Annual Head of States and Government Summit Meetings

1975: 15-17 Mar. 1st Heads of State and Government Informal Economic Summit, G-5 + Italy, Rambouillet, Paris, France: World monetary system and oil crisis.

2014: 24 Mar. Heads of State and Government Economic Summit, G-7 (Heads of State and Government Economic Summit, G-8, Sochi, Russia cancelled), The Hague; 4 June, G-7, Brussels

2015: 4-5 June Heads of State and Government Economic Summit, G-7, Schloss Elmau, Krün, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, Germany

2016: 26-27 May Heads of State and Government Economic Summit, G-7, Ise-shima National Park, Mie Prefecture, Japan

 

            Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction

            14-15 Jan. 2016 1st meeting, Tokyo

 

Group of 9 (G9)

Established as a forum for discussion of matters of mutual interest in December 1965.

Members (9): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Romania, and Sweden.

 

Group of 10 (G10)

Established in October 1962 to coordinate credit policy, participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB),  and provide a forum for debtor countries to negotiate rescheduling of debts.

Headquarters: none

Organization: Ministerial and central bank ad hoc meetings

Members (11+4): Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland (April 1984), United Kingdom, and United States; Bank of International Settlements (BIS), EC Commission, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Associate member (1): Luxembourg.

Meetings: Ministers of Finance and Central Bank Governors of the Group of Ten usually meet once a year in connection with the annual meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Website: www.g10.org

 

Group of 11 (G11) (Cartagena Group)

Established on 22 June 1984 to provide a forum for discussion of debt issues.

Members (11): Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

 

Group of 15 (G15)

Established on 9 September 1989 to advance policies of the Nonaligned Movement (NAM) and promote economic cooperation among developing nations.

Members (19): Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran (Oct. 2000), Jamaica, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Sri Lanka (May 1998), Venezuela, Zimbabwe.

Meetings: Summit meeting

9 Sep. 1989 Founding summit, Belgrade

 

Group of 20 (G20)

Established on 16 December 1999 to provide an informal forum on international financial matters, incl. ways to streamline the global financial system.

Headquarters: none

Organization: none

Members (20): Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Korea (ROK), Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, European Union (EU), and International Monetary Fund/World Bank (IMF/IBDR).

Meetings: Annual Summit Meeting of Heads of State and Government

15-16 Nov. 2015 10th Summit meeting of Heads of State and Government, Antalya, Turkey

4-5 Sep. 2016 11th Summit meeting of Heads of State and Government, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China

Website: www.g20.org

 

Group of 24 (G24)

Established in 1971 as Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs to represent the interests of developing countries with the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Headquarters: Washington DC

Members (29): Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (DR), Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, India, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Serbia and Montenegro, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.

 

Group of 24 (G24)

Established on 1 August 1989.

Headquarters: Paris

Members (24): Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States of America.

Website: www.g24.org

See Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

 

Group of 77 (G77)

Established on 15 June 1964 to promote economic cooperation among developing countries.

Contact: Group of 77, UN Headquarters, New York NY USA

Organization: Chairman, South Summit, Chapters

Members (132): Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,  Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Korea (DPRK), Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, São Tomé e Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Meetings: South Summit

14-15 June 2014 Heads of State and Government Summit meeting, Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Website: www.g77.org

 

GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development

Established as Union of Three and on 10 October 1997 as GUAM to promote political and economic cooperation, to prevent CIS from becoming a military bloc and to provide a link to NATO. It expanded to GUUAM when Uzbekistan joined in April 1999 and returned to GUAM when Uzbekistan withdrew.

Headquarters: Kyiv

Organization: Council, Parliamentary Assembly, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (4): Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. Uzbekistan (14 April 1999) announced its withdrawal on 13 June 2002 and withdrew in 2005.

Meetings: Summit Meeting of Heads of State and Government, Ministerial Meetings

Website: http://guam-organization.org/

 

 

 

Gulf Cooperation Council/ Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC/CCASG)

Established on 14 February 1981, formally on 25 May 1981, to advance economic, political, and military cooperation of member states.

Headquarters: Riyadh

Organization: Supreme Council, Ministerial Council, General Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

General Secretariat: Members (6): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Yemen which applied for membership in 1996 was admitted on 16 October 2002 to join the regional commissions of education, football, health, and labor.

Meetings: Annual meeting of Supreme Council

4 May 2015 Supreme Council session, Riyadh

9 Dec. 2015 Supreme Council session, Riyadh

Website: www.gcc-sg.org; www.gcc-sg.org/eng/index.php

 

Ibero-American Summits/Cumbres Iberoamericanas de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno/Cúpulas Ibero-Americanas de Chefes de Estado e de Governo

Initially organized for Spain to link politically with Latin American states. Later summits evolved into a forum for cultural and developmental discussions.

Organization: Secretariat in Madrid.

Members (22): Andorra (2004), Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Associate members (3): Equatorial Guinea, Philippines, and Puerto Rico.

Observers (6): Belgium, France, Italy, Morocco, Netherlands, and the Philippines.

Applicants (15): Angola, Aruba, Bonaire, Cape Verde, Curaçao, Guadeloupe, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti (2011), Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, São Tomé and Príncipe, Trinidad and Tobago, Western Sahara.

Meetings: Summit meetings (biennial starting in 2015)

18-19 July 1991 1st Ibero-American Summit, Guadalajara, Mexico

28-29 Oct. 2016 25th Ibero-American Summit, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

Website: www.segib.org

 

Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)

Established in 1982 to promote regional cooperation.

Headquarters: Quatre Bornes, Mauritius

Organization: Council of Ministers, Permanent Committee, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (5): Comoros, La Réunion, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Seychelles.

Meetings: Council of Ministers

Website: www.coi-ioc.org

 

Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)

Established on 6 March 1997 to promote regional cooperation (Formerly known as Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC).

Headquarters: Vacoas, Mauritius

Organization: Council of Ministers, Coordinating Secretariat—headed by Director

Members (18): Australia, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

Applications pending: Maldives, and Pakistan.

Dialog partners (4): China, Egypt, Japan, and United Kingdom (admitted 23 January 2000).

Meetings: Biennial meeting of the Council of Ministers

20-23 Oct. 2015 15th Council of Ministers meeting, Padang, Indonesia

Website: www.iornet.com

 

Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

Established on 15-16 January 1986 as Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) to promote a social, economic, and scientific community among its members and to cooperate in resolution of regional conflicts. Renamed on 21 March 1996.

Headquarters: Djibouti

Organization: Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Council of Ministers, IGAD Inter-Parliamentary Union, Executive Secretariat--headed by Executive Secretary

Members (6): Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda. Eritrea withdrew in April 2007.

Meetings: Assembly of Heads of States and Government, Council of Ministers

6-7 Nov. 2014 28th Extraordinary Summit meeting, Addis Ababa

Website: www.igad.org

 

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Established by Statute of 23 October 1956 which became effective on 29 July 1957. The agency operates independently related to the United Nations system to advance the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, to insure safety, and prevent military use.

Headquarters: Vienna

Organization: General Conference, Board of Governors (35 member states), Secretariat--headed by Director General

Signatories (incl. ratification) (146): Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, , Cameroon,  Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,  Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, , Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, , Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea (ROK), Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,  Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,  Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique,  Namibia,  Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,  Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, , Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vatican City State, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Pending (2): Lesotho and Papua New Guinea.

Non-signatories (43): Andorra, Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bhutan, Brunei, Comoros, Djibouti, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gambia, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Kiribati,  Kosovo, Laos, Maldives, Micronesia, Nauru, Oman, Rwanda, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, San Marino, São Tomé e Principe, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Somalia,  Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

Cambodia (1958-2003, withdrew), Korea (DPRK) (1974-1994, withdrew)

Meetings: IAEA General Conference, all held in Vienna

14-18 Sep. 2015 59th IAEA General Conference

Website: www.iaea.org

           

International Criminal Court/Cour Pénale Internationale (ICC/CPI)

Established on 1 July 2002 to complement national courts to investigate and bring to justice individuals who commit serious violations of international law, such as crimes against humanity, genocide, hostage-taking, intentional attacks on the civilian population, recruitment of children under 15, summary executions, torture, and war crimes. Court was constituted on 11 March 2003. Note: The Court is not part of the United Nations (UN).

Treaty Basis: Rome Statute adopted on 17 July 1998

Headquarters: The Hague

Organization: Assembly of States Parties,  Assembly Secretariat, Presidency, Office of the Prosecutor

Signatories to 1998 Rome Statute (123): Afghanistan (10 Feb. 2003), Albania (31 Jan. 2003), Andorra (30 Apr. 2001), Antigua and Barbuda (18 June 2001), Argentina (8 Feb. 2001), Australia (1 July 2002), Austria (28 Dec. 2000), Bangladesh (23 March 2010), Barbados (10 Dec. 2002), Belgium (28 June 2000), Belize (5 Apr. 2000), Benin (22 Jan. 2002), Bolivia (27 June 2002), Bosnia and Herzegovina (11 Apr. 2002), Botswana (8 Sep. 2000), Brazil (20 June 2002), Bulgaria (11 Apr. 2002), Burkina Faso (16 Apr. 2004), Burundi (21 Sep. 2004), Cambodia (11 Apr. 2002), Canada (7 July 2000), Cape Verde (10 Oct. 2011), Central African Republic (3 Oct. 2001), Chad (1 Nov. 2006), Chile (29 June 2009), Colombia (5 Aug. 2002), Comoros (18 Aug. 2006), Congo (B) (3 May 2004), Congo (DR) (11 Apr. 2002), Cook Islands (18 July 2008), Costa Rica (7 June 2001), Croatia (21 May 2001), Cyprus (7 Mar. 2002), Czech Republic (13 Apr. 1999), Denmark (21 June 2001), Djibouti (5 Nov. 2002), Dominica (12 Feb. 2001), Dominican Republic (12 May 2005), Ecuador (5 Feb. 2002), Estonia (30 Jan. 2002), Fiji (29 Nov. 1999), Finland (29 Dec. 2000), France (9 June 2000), Gabon (20 Sep. 2000), Gambia (28 June 2002), Georgia (5 Sep. 2003), Germany (11 Dec. 2000), Ghana (20 Dec. 1999), Greece (15 May 2002), Grenada (19 May 2011), Guatemala (2 April 2012), Guinea (14 July 2003), Guyana (24 Sep. 2004), Honduras (1 July 2002), Hungary (30 Nov. 2001), Iceland (25 May 2000), Ireland (11 Apr. 2002), Italy (26 July 1999), Ivory Coast (15 February 2013), Japan (17 July 2007), Jordan (11 Apr. 2002), Kenya (15 Mar. 2005), Korea (ROK) (13 Nov. 2002),  Latvia (28 June 2002), Lesotho (6 Sep. 2000), Liberia (22 Sep. 2004), Liechtenstein (2 Oct. 2001), Lithuania (12 May 2003), Luxembourg (8 Sep. 2000), Macedonia (6 Mar. 2002), Madagascar (14 Mar. 2008), Malawi (19 Sep. 2002), Maldives (21 Sep. 2011), Mali (16 Aug. 2000), Malta (29 Nov. 2002), Marshall Islands (7 Dec. 2000), Mauritius (5 Mar. 2002), Mexico (28 Oct. 2005), Moldova (12 Oct. 2010), Mongolia (11 Apr. 2002), Montenegro (3 June 2006), Namibia (25 June 2002), Nauru (12 Nov. 2001), Netherlands (17 July 2001), New Zealand (7 Sep. 2000),  Niger (11 Apr. 2002), Nigeria (27 Sep. 2001), Norway (16 Feb. 2000), Palestine (1 Apr. 2015, 123rd)Panama (21 Mar. 2002), Paraguay (14 May 2001), Peru (10 Nov 2001), Philippines (30 Aug. 2011), Poland (12 Nov. 2001), Portugal (5 Feb. 2002), Romania (11 Apr. 2002), Saint Kitts and Nevis (22 Aug. 2006), Saint Lucia (18 Aug. 2010), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (3 Dec. 2002), Samoa (16 Sep. 2002), San Marino (13 May 1999), Senegal (2 Feb. 1999), Serbia (6 Sep. 2001), Seychelles (10 Aug. 2010), Sierra Leone (15 Sep. 2000), Slovakia (11 Apr. 2002), Slovenia (31 Dec. 2001), South Africa (27 Nov. 2000), Spain (24 Oct. 2000), Suriname (15 July 2008), Sweden (28 June 2001), Switzerland (12 Oct. 2001), Tajikistan (5 May 2000), Tanzania (20 Aug. 2002), Timor-Leste (6 Sep. 2002),Trinidad and Tobago (6 Apr. 1999), Tunisia (24 June 2011),  Uganda (14 June 2002), United Kingdom (4 Oct. 2001), Uruguay (28 June 2002), Vanuatu (2 Dec. 2011), Venezuela (7 June 2000), and Zambia (13 Nov. 2002).

 

The following states have signed but not ratified the statute (33): Algeria, Angola,  Armenia,  Bahamas, Bahrain, Cameroon, Egypt, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Iran, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Philippines, Russia, São Tomé e Principe, Solomon Islands, Sudan*, Syria, Thailand, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.

 

The following states have not signed the statute (39): Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, China, Cuba, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Korea (DPRK), Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Mauritania, Micronesia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka,  Swaziland, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United States of America, Vanuatu, Vietnam. The president of the United States of America signed the statute on 31 December 2000 but on 6 May 2002 the administration informed the UN that it would not ratify the treaty.

 

The US withdrew its signature and opposes the treaty. It has entered into bilateral agreements with other states under Article 98 aimed at preventing US citizens from being surrendered to the court: Afghanistan (2002), Albania (July 2003), Bosnia and Herzegovina (July 2003), Djibouti (July 2003), Dominican Republic (no. 5 Sep. 2002), East Timor (no. 3 Aug. 2002), Egypt (July 2003), Honduras (2002), India (no. 15 Dec 2002), Israel (no. 2 Aug 2002), Kazakhstan (22 Sep. 2003), Marshall Islands (2002), Mauritania (2002), Mauritius (July 2003), Palau (2002), Romania (no. 1 in Aug. 2002), Rwanda (3 March 2003), Tajikistan (no. 4 Aug 2002), Uzbekistan (2002), and Zambia (July 2003). Portugal on 12 April 2003 suspended its planned agreement with the US.

 

On 1 July 2003, the US suspended military assistance to 35 countries for their refusal to exempt US personnel from ICC jurisdiction. Countries affected: Benin, Central African Republic, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Namibia, Niger, South Africa, and Tanzania. United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1422 on 12 July 2002 suspending prosecution by the ICC of members of UN peacekeeping operations for one year. The suspension was extended on 12 June 2003 by Resolution 1487 until 30 June 2004.

*The Sudanese government is not cooperating with the ICC and the African Union (AU) decided against cooperating with the Court.

Meetings: Review Conference of the Rome Statute, Assembly of States Parties

Website: www.icc-cpi.int

 

International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS)

Established on 26 March 1993 as an intergovernmental organization to develop and finance ecological projects to recover the situation in the districts exposed to the Aral Sea catastrophe impact as well as for the solving of general socio-economic problems of the region.

Headquarters: Almaty, Kazakhstan

Organization: Council of the Heads of States, President, Board, Executive Committee, Secretariat

Members (5): Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Meetings: Council of the Heads of States

Website: www.ec-ifas.org

 

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)

Established on 27 February 1995 as an intergovernmental organization to support sustainable democracy worldwide.

Headquarters: Stockholm

Organization: Council, Board of Advisers, Secretary General

Members (25): Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ghana, India, Mauritius, Mexico, Namibia, Netherlands,, Norway, Peru, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uruguay.

Associate Members (4): Inter-American Institute for Human Rights (IIDH), International Press Institute (IPI), Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA), and Transparency International (TI). (Associate membership is being converted into partnerships.)

Observer (1): Japan.

Website: www.idea.int

 

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Established on 22 July 1944, effective 27 December 1945, to promote global monetary stability and economic development.

Headquarters: Washington DC

Organization: Board of Governors, Executive Board, Managing Director

Members (189): Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea (ROK), Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru (12 Apr. 2016, 189th), Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia (1992), Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé e Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia (FRY: Aug. 1996, readmitted Dec. 2000), Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan (18 April 2012), Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste,Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (June 2003 suspension of voting rights).

Meetings: Annual and Spring Meetings of the World Bank Group and the IMF, all meetings are held in Washington DC

All annual and Spring meetings are held in Washington DC USA.

17-19 Apr. 2015 Spring Meeting of the World Bank Group and the IMF

9-11 Oct. 2015 Annual Meeting of the World Bank Group and the IMF

15-17 Apr. 2016 Spring Meeting of the World Bank Group and the IMF

Website: www.imf.org

                                                           

International Organization of the Francophonie /Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF)

Established on 20 March 1970 to promote cultivation of the French language and to develop cultural relations among member states.

Headquarters: Paris

Organization: Conference of Heads of State and Government, Ministerial Conference, Permanent Council, Parliamentary Assembly, General Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (56): Albania, Andorra, Belgium, Belgium-French Community, Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Canada-New Brunswick, Canada-Québec, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Mauritania, Moldova, Monaco, Morocco, Niger, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, São Tomé e Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, and Vietnam.

Associate members (2): Cyprus, and Ghana.

Observers (13): Armenia, Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Mozambique, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine.

Meetings Biennial Summit Conference of Heads of State and Government

17-19 Feb. 1986 1st Heads of state and Government summit meeting, Versailles, France

28-30 Nov. 2014 15th Summit Conference of Heads of State and Government, Dakar

15-20 Nov. 2016 16th Summit Conference of Heads of State and Government, Antananarivo

Website: www.francophonie.org

 

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

Established on 26 January 2009 in Bonn as a platform for cooperation on renewable energy.

Headquarters: Abu Dhabi

Organization: Assembly, Council, and Secretariat – headed by Secretary General

Members (138): Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, China, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea (ROK), Kuwait, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Yemen, and Zambia.

States in Accession (3): Afghanistan, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Costa Rica, Gabon,  Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Ireland, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Morocco, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Syria, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Uzbekistan, and Zimbabwe.

Meetings: Assembly sessions

 

Interparliamentary Union (IPU)

Established on 29 June 1889 to serve as a focal point for worldwide parliamentary dialog and to promote representative democracy.

Headquarters: Geneva

Organization: Interparliamentary Assembly, Interparliamentary Council, Executive Committee, General Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (153): Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia,  Finland,  France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea (DPRK), Korea (ROK), Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé e Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay,  Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Associate Members (8): Andean Parliament, Central American Parliament (PARLACEN), East African Legislative Assembly, European Parliament, Inter-Parliamentary Committee of the West African Economic and Monetary Union, Latin American Parliament (PARLATINO), Parliament of the Economic Community of West African States, and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.

Meetings: Semi-annual Interparliamentary Conference

28 Mar.-1 Apr. 2015 132nd IPU Assembly, Hanoi

31 Oct.-4 Nov. 2015 133rd IPU Assembly, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

Website: www.ipu.org

 

Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC)

Established in June 1980 to strengthen unity among Inuit of the Circumpolar region of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Chukotka (Russia), to promote Inuit rights and interests on the international level, and to develop and encourage long-term policies which safeguard the Arctic environment.

Headquarters: Iqaluit, NU, Canada

ICC-Alaska: Anchorage

ICC-Canada: Ottawa

ICC-Greenland: Nuuk

Russia: Anadyr, Chukotka

Organization: General Assembly, Council, Executive Council

Members: Some 155,000 Inuit in Alaska (USA), Canada, Greenland (Denmark), and Chukotka (Russia).

Meetings: General Assembly meetings every 4 years

1980 Founding assembly.

Website—ICC (Canada): www.inuitcircumpolar.com

Website—ICC (Greenland): www.inuit.org

Website—ICC (Alaska): www.iccalaska.com

 

Lake Chad Basin Commission/Commission du Bassin du Lac Tchad (LCB/CBLT)

Established on 22 May 1964 to encourage cooperation in the Lake Chad region and to attract financial and technical assistance.

Headquarters:  N’Djamena

Members (5): Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria.

Observer (1): Sudan.

Meetings: Heads of state and government summit

 

Latin American Economic System/Sistema Económico Latinoamericano (SELA)

Established on 17 October 1975 by the Panama Convention to promote economic cooperation and social development between countries of the Caribbean and Latin America.

Headquarters: Caracas

Organization: Latin American Council/Consejo Latinoamericano, Permanent Secretariat—headed by Permanent Secretary, elected every five years

Members (27): Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Meetings: Annual meeting of the Latin American Council

Website: www.sela.org

 

Latin American Parliament/Parlamento Latinoamericano (PARLATINO)

Established on 10 December 1964

Headquarters: Panama City

Organization: Assembly, President,  Permanent Commissions, General Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (22): Argentina, Aruba, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Meetings: Annual meeting of the Assembly

Website: www.parlatino.org

 

League of Arab States/Jami’at ad-Duwal al-Arabiyya (LAS)

Arab League/al-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya

Established on 22 March 1945 to advance independence of dependent Arab states and to promote Arab unity.

Headquarters: Cairo

Organization:  Council, Parliamentary Assembly, General Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (22): Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq3, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya1, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria4, Tunisia2, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

1 Libya threatened to withdraw in March 2002 and again on 24 October 2002. On 22 February 2011 Libya was suspended.

2 Tunisia announced on 27 September 1968 its intention to withdraw.

3 Absent from 1990 until September 1999.

4  Suspended in November 2011.  On 26 March 2013, the Syrian National Coalition is recognized as legitimate representative.

In February 2012, Austria confirmed it was considering application for status as observer.

Meetings: Annual summit meetings of the Council.

Jan. 1964 1st Council meeting, Cairo

28-29 Mar. 2015 26th Council meeting, Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt

Website: www.arableagueonline.org; www.arableagueonline.org/las/index_en.jsp

 

Liberal International (LI)

Founded in April 1947 as the world federation of liberal political parties.

Headquarters: London

Members (62)

Meetings: Annual Congress

28-31 Oct. 2015 60th Congress, Mexico City

Website: www.liberal-international.org

 

Mano River Union (MRU)

Established on 3 October 1973.

Headquarters: Freetown

Organization: Conference of Heads of State or Government, Council of Economic and Finance Ministers, Secretariat

Members (4): Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

Meetings: Conference of Heads of State or Government

 

 

 

Mekong River Commission (MRC)

Established in 1957 as Mekong Committee (MC) to develop river water resources. It was replaced by the MRC on 5 April 1995 to jointly manage the water and natural resources of the Mekong.

Treaty Basis: Agreement on Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin of 5 April 1995.

Headquarters: Vientiane and Phnom Penh

Organization: MRC Council, Joint Committee, Secretariat—headed by Chief Executive Officer

Members (4): Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Dialog Partners (2): Burma and China.

Meetings: Annual meetings of MRC Council

Website: www.mrcmekong.org

 

            Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)

            Meetings:

            20 Dec. 2014 5th Summit on Economic Cooperation, Bangkok

           

Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG)

Founded in 1983 and established on 23 March 2007 to create a forum for the discussion of Melanesian issues, promote trade, and to advance independence of Kanaky/New Caledonia.

Headquarters: Port Vila, Vanuatu

Organization:  Leaders’ Summit, Secretariat—headed by MSG Director

Members (5): Fiji1, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu; FLNKS Kanak representatives of New Caledonia.

1 On 1 September 2010, Fiji suspended itself from all formal meetings. On 15 December 2010, it assumed the rotating chairmanship.

Observer: Indonesia, West Papuan National Coalition (2015).

Meetings: Leaders’ Summit

3-5 May 2016 22nd Leaders’ Summit, Port Vila (postponed on 29 April 2016)

 

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

Established on 16 April 1987 to seek to coordinate national export licensing aimed at preventing the proliferation of unmanned delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction.

Headquarters: at seat of current chairman

Organization: Plenary Meeting of Partners, Chairman

Members (34): Argentina (1993), Australia (1990), Austria (1991), Belgium (1990), Brazil (1995), Bulgaria (2004), Canada*, Czech Republic (1998), Denmark (1990), Finland (1991), France*, Germany*, Greece (1992), Hungary (1993), Iceland (1993), Ireland (1992), Italy*, Japan*, Korea (ROK) (2001), Luxembourg (1990), Netherlands (1990), New Zealand (1991), Norway (1990), Poland (1998), Portugal (1992), Russia (1995), South Africa (1995), Spain (1990), Sweden (1991), Switzerland (1992), Turkey (1997), Ukraine (1998), United Kingdom*, and the United States of America*.

*Founding member

Meetings: Annual Plenary Meetings

Website: www.mtcr.info

 

Nile Basin Initiative (NBI)/Nile River Basin Cooperative Framework

Established in February 1999 to develop the water resources of the Nile in a sustainable and equitable way, fight poverty and promote economic development in the region. The Nile River Basin Cooperative Framework was signed on 14 May 2011 in Entebbe by Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. Egypt and Sudan insist on their major share of Nile waters under the original agreements of 1929, 1959, and 8 November 1989.

Headquarters: Entebbe, Uganda

Organization: Council of Ministers, Secretariat—headed by Executive Director

Members (11): Burundi, Congo (DR), Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

Note: On 28 March 2011, South Sudan announced it would honor the 1999 agreement.

Meetings: Meetings of Council of Ministers

Website: www.nilebasin.org

 

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

Established on 15 June 1961 to seek a “Third Way” between the East and West blocs and maintain independence and to advance anti-imperialism, anti-racism, and disarmament.

Headquarters: Jakarta

Organization: Chairman, Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government, Ministerial Conference, Coordination Office

Members (120): Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Azerbaijan (25 May 2011), Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Congo (DR), Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea (Oct. 1995), Ethiopia, Fiji (26 May 2011), Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Korea (DPRK), Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, São Tomé e Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,  Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan (Oct. 1995), Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended 1992), Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Observers (18): Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Paraguay, Serbia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uruguay.

Meetings: Triennial Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government, Ministerial Conference

18-24 Apr. 1955 Asia-Africa Conference, Bandung, Indonesia

1 Sep. 1961 1st Summit Conference, Belgrade

Website: www.nam.gov.za

 

Nordic Council (NC)

Established on 16 March 1952 to promote regional cultural, economic and environmental cooperation.

Headquarters: Copenhagen

Organization: Council, Presidium, Council of Ministers, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (5): Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.

Observers (3): Sami parliaments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden.

Meetings: Nordic Council

Website: www.norden.org

 

Nordic Baltic Group (NB8)

Established in August 2010.

Members (8): Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Entered into force on 1 January 1989 to expand export markets and to eliminate import restrictions.

Headquarters: Ottawa, Mexico City, and Washington DC

Organization: NAFTA Secretariat in above cities, each headed by a Secretary

Parties (4): Canada, Chile (Dec. 1994), Mexico, and the United States.

Meetings: Summit Meetings

Website: www.nafta-sec-alena.org

 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Established on 4 April 1949, effective 24 August 1949, to defend against armed attack against one or more of the treaty parties and to maintain and develop capacity to resist attack.

Treaty Basis: North Atlantic Treaty of 4 April 1949.

Headquarters: Brussels.

Organization: North Atlantic Council, Defense Planning Committee, Nuclear Planning Group, International Staff, headed by the Secretary General, NATO Parliamentary Assembly, International Military Staff

Members (28): Albania (9 July 2008, effective 1 Apr. 2009), Belgium*, Bulgaria (2 Apr. 2004), Canada*, Croatia (9 July 2008, effective 1 Apr. 2009), Czech Republic (24 Apr. 1999), Denmark*, Estonia (2 Apr. 2004), France* (no military participation from 1 July 1966 until 5 Dec. 1995; returned to military command structure on 1 Apr. 2009), Germany (6 May 1955), Greece (18 Feb. 1952; no military participation from 14 Aug. 1974 until 28 Sep. 1977), Hungary (24 Apr. 1999), Iceland* (no armed forces), Italy*, Latvia (2 Apr. 2004), Lithuania (2 Apr. 2004), Luxembourg*, Netherlands*, Norway*, Poland (24 Apr. 1999), Portugal*, Romania (2 Apr. 2004), Slovakia (2 Apr. 2004), Slovenia (2 Apr. 2004), Spain (30 May 1982; military participation approved on 14 Nov. 1996), Turkey (18 Feb. 1952), United Kingdom*, and United States*.

*Founding member.

Candidates (4): Georgia, Macedonia (pending resolution of dispute over name), Montenegro (invited for membership on 19 May 2016), and Ukraine (applied on 7 June 2002).

Meetings: North Atlantic Council, Chiefs of Defense (CD), Defense Ministerial (DM) Meetings, Foreign Ministerial (FM) Meetings

1949: 17-18 Sep. FM 1st North Atlantic Council session, Washington DC USA; 18 Nov FM Washington.

2015: 5 Feb. DM; 13-14 May FM, Antalya, Turkey;15-18 May Parliamentary Assembly Spring Session, Budapest; 24-25 June DM; 8-9 July Summit meeting, Warsaw; 8 Oct. DM; 9-12 Oct. Parliamentary Assembly Annual session, Stavanger, Norway; 1-2 Dec. FM.

2016: 10-11 Feb. DM; 19-20 May FM; 27-30 May Parliamentary Assembly Spring Session, Tirana; 14-15 June DM; 8-9 July Summit meeting, Warsaw;

DM Defense ministerial FM Foreign ministerial 

Unless noted otherwise, all meetings take place in Brussels, Belgium

Website: www.nato.int

 

            Partnership for Peace (PfP)

NATO program, started in January 1994, to expand military cooperation and develop relations among members.

            Headquarters: NATO Headquarters, Brussels

            Partners (34): Albania (23 Feb. 1994), Armenia (5 Oct. 1994), Austria 10 Feb. 1995), Azerbaijan 4 May 1994), Belarus (11 Jan. 1995), Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 Dec. 2006), Bulgaria (14 Feb. 1994), Croatia (25 May 2000),  Czech Republic (10 Mar. 1994), Estonia (3 Feb. 2004), Finland (9 May 1994), Georgia (23 Mar. 1994), Hungary (8 Feb. 1994), Ireland (1 Dec. 1999, Kazakhstan (27 May 1994), Kyrgyzstan (1 June 1994), Latvia (14 Feb. 1994), Lithuania (27 Jan. 1994), Macedonia (15 Nov. 1995), Malta, Moldova (16 Mar. 1994), Montenegro (14 Dec. 2006), Poland (2 Feb. 1994), Romania (26 Jan. 1994), Russia (22 June 1994), Serbia (14 Dec. 2006), Slovakia (9 Feb. 1994), Slovenia (30 Mar. 1994), Sweden (9 May 1994), Switzerland (11 Dec. 1996), Tajikistan (20 Feb. 2002), Turkmenistan (10 May 1994), Ukraine (8 Feb. 1994), and Uzbekistan (13 July 1994). NATO-Mongolia bilateral partnership (March 2012).

            Active Partnerships: 22 (2013)

 

            Adriatic Charter

Established on 2 May 2003 to advance the integration of Albania, Croatia, and Macedonia into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization through            mutual cooperation.

Partners (6): Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and the United States of America.

            Meetings: Partnership Commission meetings

14 Nov. 2003 1st Partnership Commission meeting, Washington DC, USA

 

Nuclear Exporters Committee

Established 1971-1974 as Zangger Committee to issue guidelines for export control of nuclear weapons, material, and technical data.

Treaty basis: Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) of 1 July 1968.

Headquarters: Vienna

Organization: Chairman, Secretariat—headed by Secretary

Members (37): Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea (ROK), Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (1999), United Kingdom, and United States.

Observer (1): European Commission (EC).

Meetings: Committee meetings

Website: www.zanggercommittee.org

 

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) (London Suppliers Group)

Established in 1974 to issue guidelines for the export of nuclear materials, processing equipment, and technical data to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

Headquarters: none

Organization: Plenary Meeting, Consultative Group

Members (46): Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea (ROK), Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand,  Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States.

Observer (1): European Commission (EC).

Meetings: Plenary Meetings

Website: www.nuclearsuppliersgroup.org

 

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Established on 14 December 1960, effective 30 September 1961, to promote economic growth and employment, a rising standard of living, maintain finance stability, and further the expansion of world trade.

Headquarters: Paris

Organization: Ministerial Council, General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General

Members (34): Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile (no. 31 May 2010), Czech Republic (no. 26 Nov. 1995), Denmark, Estonia (no. 34 Dec. 2010), Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel (no. 33 Sep. 2010), Italy, Japan, Korea (ROK)(Oct. 1996), Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland (no. 28 July 1996), Portugal, Slovakia (no. 30), Slovenia (no. 32 July 2010), Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States.  Latvia and Lithuania applied for membership in October 1996. In May 2013, OECD entered into accession discussions with Colombia and Latvia.

Website: www.oecd.org

 

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)

Established on 1 February 1958 to promote co-operation among the governments of its participating countries in furthering the development of nuclear power as a safe, environmentally acceptable and economic energy source.

Secretariat: Paris

Members (30): Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, , Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea (ROK), Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States. On 23 May 2012, Russia was invited to join the agency.

 

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

Established on 1 August 1975 as Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) to promote dialog and decrease tensions between East and West. It assumed its present name on 1 January 1995.

Treaty Basis: Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty of 19 November 1990.

Headquarters: Prague (formerly Vienna)

Organization: Heads of State or Government Summit Meeting, Ministerial Council, Chairman-in-Office, Permanent Council, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General, Parliamentary Assembly

Members (56): Albania (June 1991), Andorra (Apr. 1996) Armenia (Jan. 1992), Austria*, Azerbaijan (Jan. 1992), Belarus (Jan. 1992), Belgium*, Bosnia and Herzegovina (April 1992), Bulgaria*, Canada*, Croatia (March 1992), Cyprus*, Czech Republic (Jan. 1993), Denmark*, Estonia (Sep. 1991), Finland*, France*, Georgia (Mar. 1992), Germany*, Greece*, Holy Sea*, Hungary*, Iceland*, Ireland*, Italy*, Kazakhstan (Jan. 1992), Kyrgyzstan (Jan. 1992), Latvia (Sep. 1991), Liechtenstein*, Lithuania (Sep. 1991), Luxembourg*, Macedonia (no. 54 Oct. 1995), Malta*, Moldova (Jan. 1992), Monaco*, Montenegro (June 2006), Netherlands*, Norway*, Poland*, Portugal*, Romania*, Russia* (Jan. 1992 as successor to USSR), San Marino*, Serbia (Nov. 2000), Slovakia (Jan. 1993), Slovenia (Mar. 1992), Spain*, Sweden*, Switzerland*, Tajikistan (Jan. 1992), Turkey*, Turkmenistan (Jan. 1992), Ukraine (Jan. 1992), United Kingdom*, United States*, and Uzbekistan (Jan. 1992; EC Commission.

Partners for Cooperation (10): Afghanistan, Algeria (Dec. 1995), Egypt (Dec. 1995), Israel (Dec. 1995), Japan (1992), Jordan (Dec. 1995), Mongolia, Morocco (Dec. 1995), Thailand, and Tunisia (Dec. 1995).

*Original member.

Meetings: Heads of State or Government Summit Meeting, annual meeting of Ministerial Council, annual Parliamentary Assembly meeting

4 Oct. 1979-9 Mar. 1978 1st CSCE Follow-Up Meeting (FUM), Belgrade

3-4 Dec. 2015 22nd Ministerial Council, Belgrade

25-26 Feb. 2016 Parliamentary Assembly Winter Meeting, Vienna

Website: www.osce.org

 

            OSCE Minsk Group

            Established on 6 December 1994, effective 23 March 1995, to help with

            political settlement of the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia over

            the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave.

            Members (13): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Finland, France, Germany,

            Hungary, Italy, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and United States.

 

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

Established on 29 April 1997 to oversee implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).

Treaty Basis: Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) of 13 January 1993.

Headquarters: The Hague

Organization: Conference of the States Parties, Executive Council, Technical Secretariat--headed by Director General

Members (188): Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea (ROK), Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé e Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vatican, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,  Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Signatory states lacking ratification (2): Burma and Israel.

Non-Signatory States (6): Angola, Egypt, Korea (DPRK), Lebanon, Somalia, and Syria.

Meetings: Annual sessions of the Conference of the States Parties, held in The Hague

All sessions are held at The Hague

6-24 May 1997 1st Conference of the States Parties

Website: www.opcw.org

 

Organization of American States (OAS)

Established on 30 April 1948, effective 13 December 1951, to strengthen peace and security in the hemisphere, promote democracy, promote cooperative economic and social development, and to seek solutions to hemispheric political, judicial, and economic problems.

Headquarters: Washington DC

Organization: General Assembly, General Secretariat--headed by Secretary General of the Pan American Union.

Members (34+1): Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (suspended, readmitted on 4 June 2009 but rejected by Cuba; rejected return on 24 January 2014), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras1, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Mexico gave notice on 8 September 2002 of its intention to withdraw from the 1947 Inter-American Reciprocal Defense Treaty (Tratado Interamericano de Asistencia Reciproca/TIAR).

1 Honduras was suspended from 28 June 2009 until 1 June 2011.

Meetings: Annual meeting of the General Assembly

10-15 June 2016 46th General Assembly, Santo Domingo

Website: www.oas.org

 

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR)

Established on 22 May 1979 as an autonomous institution.

Headquarters: San José

On 24 July 2012, Venezuela’s president announced the withdrawal from the court.

 

Summit of the Americas

1994 Miami, Florida, USA

10-11 April 2015 Panama City, Panama

 

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)

Established on 9 January 1968 to coordinate Arab oil policies and depoliticize oil matters.

Headquarters: Kuwait

Organization: Council of Ministers, Executive Bureau, General Secretariat--headed by Secretary General, Judicial Tribunal

Members (11): Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait*, Libya*, Qatar, Saudi Arabia*, Syria (1972), Tunisia, and United Arab Emirates (1970).

* Founding member.

Meetings: Council of Ministers, at least twice a year

Website: www.oapecorg.org

 

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)

Established on 18 June 1981, effective 4 July 1981, to promote regional political, economic, and security cooperation.

Headquarters: Castries, Saint Lucia

Organization: OECS Authority (Heads of State and Government), Secretariat--headed by Director General

Members (9): Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

Meetings: OECD Authority semi-annual meeting

Website: www.oecs.org

 

Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (formerly Organization of the Islamic Conference/Islamic Conference Organization)

Established on 15 September 1969 to promote economic, social, cultural, and scientific cooperation among Islamic countries, combat racism and colonialism, and protect hold Islamic sites. On 28 June 2011, the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in Astana, approved to change the name of the OIC to Organization of Islamic Cooperation.

Headquarters: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Organization: Islamic Summit, Council of Foreign Ministers, General Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (57): Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo (Oct. 1997), Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Uzbekistan, and Yemen.

Observers (5+5+3): Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994), Central African Republic (1996), Russia (2005), Thailand (1998), and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) (1979); African Union (AU), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), League of Arab States (LAS), Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), and the

United Nations (UN); Moro National Liberation Front (MLF), Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialog and Cooperation (ICYFDC), and Parliamentary Union of OIC Member States (PUOICM).

Meetings: Summit of Heads of State and Government, Council of Foreign Ministers annual meeting

22-25 Sep. 1969 1st Conference, Rabat, Morocco

6-7 Mar. 2016 5th Extraordinary Conference on Palestine and Al-Quds, Jakarta

10-15 Apr. 2016 15th Conference, Istanbul, Turkey

Website: www.oic-oci.org

 

            Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (PUIC)

            Established on 17 June 1999 to introduce and disseminate the principles of Islam, enhance and support the implementation of the Islamic principle of consultation (Shura) in all member states, and             provide for cooperation and coordination among parliaments of OIC members in international forums and organizations.

            Headquarters, Tehran

Organization: Conference, Council, Executive Committee, General Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (50): Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo (Oct. 1997), Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen.

            Observers (11)

            Meetings: Biennial meeting of the Conference

            Website: www.puic.org

 

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Established on 14 September 1960 to coordinate and unify oil policies and develop safeguards for national and common interests.

Headquarters: Vienna (Geneva until 1965)

Organization: Conference, Board of Governors, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (12): Algeria (1969), Angola (2006), Ecuador (withdrew Dec.1992-Oct. 2007), Indonesia (1962, suspended membership Jan. 2009), Iran*, Iraq*, Kuwait*, Libya (1962), Nigeria (1971), Qatar (1961), Saudi Arabia*, United Arab Emirates (1967 as Abu Dhabi), and Venezuela*.

*Founding member

Meetings: Semi-annual Conference (Ministerial meeting)

1960: 10-14 Sep. 1st OPEC Conference, Baghdad

2015: 5 June 167th Ordinary OPEC Conference, Vienna. 4 Dec. 168th Ordinary OPEC Conference, Vienna.

2016: 2 June 169th Ordinary OPEC Conference, Vienna.

Website: www.opec.org

 

Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)

Established as Black Sea Economic Cooperation Area (BSECA) on 25 June 1992 to promote economic cooperation in the region. Renamed on 5 June 1998.

Treaty Basis: Bosporus Declaration—Declaration on Black Sea Economic Cooperation of 25 June 1992 in Istanbul.

Headquarters: Istanbul, Turkey

Organization: Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Parliamentary Assembly, Permanent International Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (12): Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, and Ukraine.

Observers (13): Austria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Poland, Slovakia,  Tunisia, United Kingdom (since 17 April 2008), and United States of  America; International Black Sea Club, Energy Charter Secretariat, Black Sea Commission, and the Commission of the European Communities (EC).

Meetings: Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs

25 June 1992 1st Summit meeting, Istanbul

Website: www.bsec-organization.org

 

            Parliamentary Assembly of the BSEC (PABSEC)

 

Pacific Alliance/Alliance of the Pacific (Alianza de Pacifico/Pacto de Pacifico/Acuerdo del Pacifico)

Trade bloc formed on 28 April 2011 in Lima to deepen commercial relations, widen access to Asian markets, and form a free trade area and further strengthened on the 6 June 2012 on Cerro Paranal, Chile.

Members (5): Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru.

Organization: Columbia assumed temporary leadership on 23 May 2013.

Meetings: Summit Meetings

28 Apr. 2011 Initial Summit, Lima

 

            Pacific Alliance Parliament

 

Pacific Community/Communauté du Pacifique

Established as South Pacific Commission (SPC) on 6 February 1947, effective 29 July 1948, to promote regional and social cooperation. Renamed on 23 May 1997.

Headquarters: Nouméa, New Caledonia

Organization: Conference, Committee of Representatives of Governments and Administrations, Secretariat—headed by Director General

Members (26): American Samoa (1983), Australia* (1947), Cook Islands (1980), Fiji (1971), France* (1947), French Polynesia (1983), Guam (1983), Kiribati (1983), Marshall Islands (1983), Micronesia (1983), Nauru (1969), New Caledonia, New Zealand*, Niue (1980), Northern Mariana Islands (1983), Palau (1983), Papua New Guinea (1975), Pitcairn Islands (1983), Samoa (1st island member, 1965), Solomon Islands (1978), Tokelau (1983), Tonga (1983), Tuvalu (1978), United States* (1947), Vanuatu (1983), and Wallis and Futuna (1983).  (The Netherlands, a founding member in 1947, withdrew in 1962).

Observer (1): Israel (Feb. 2014). 

*Founding member

Meetings: Biennial meeting of the Conference

Website: www.spc.int

 

Pacific Island Development Forum (PIDF)

Established on 27 October 2005 to stimulate economic growth and enhance political governance and security for the region.*

Secretariat: Suva City, Fiji.

Members (16): Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshal islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.

Observers: Australia, New Zealand.

Website: www.forumsec.org

*Originally established at the request of Fiji after it was suspended from the Pacific islands Forum (PIF) and to limit the role of Australia and New Zealand in the Pacific region.

 

Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)

Established as South Pacific Forum (SPF) on 5 August 1971, renamed Pacific Islands Forum on 28 October 2000, to discuss regional cooperation and deal with regional political instability.

Headquarters: Suva, Fiji

Organization: Pacific Islands Leaders Meeting (PALM), Forum, Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (16): Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji1, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

Dialog partners (10): Canada, China, European Union (EU), France, Japan, Korea (ROK), Malaysia (1996), Philippines (1999), UK, and United States. In 1995 France was suspended for conducting nuclear tests and readmitted in 1996.

1 Suspended on 2 May 2009. On 4 June 2011, Fiji leaves PIF. Suspension is lifted on 24 October 2014.

Meetings: Annual Forum, Pacific Islands Leaders Meeting (PALM)

7-11 Sep. 2015 46th Pacific Islands Forum, Port Moresby

Website: www.forumsec.org.fj

 

Permanent Court of Arbitration/Cour permanente d'arbitrage (PCA/CPA)

Established in 1899 as an intergovernmental organization to provide dispute resolution services to the international community.

Headquarters: The Hague, Netherlands

Organization: Administrative Council, International Bureau, headed by the Secretary General

Members (109): Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (DR), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Korea (ROK), Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Website: www.pca-cpa.org

 

Polynesian Leaders’ Group (PLG)

Established on 18 November 2011 at a meeting in Samoa to work together to seek a future for Polynesian people and protect their cultures, languages, and traditions.

Members (8): American Samoa, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Niue, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Meetings: Annual.

2 Feb 2015 Meeting, Auckland, New Zealand                                           

 

Rio Group/Grupo de Río

(Group of 19/G19)

Established on 5 January 1983 as Contadora Group to consult on regional matters, became Group of 8/Grupo de los Ocho (G-8). Formed as Rio Group on 27 November 1987.  Permanent Mechanism of Political Consultation and Coordination of Latin America.

Headquarters: none

Organization: Summit of Heads of State

Members (23): Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (Dec. 2008), Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama (expelled 1988-1993), Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Meetings: Annual Summit of Heads of State

 

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

Established on 15 June 2001, formalizing the Shanghai Five (renamed Shanghai Forum in July 2000) treaty arrangements of 1996 (Shanghai) and 1997 to strengthen mutual trust and good neighborly friendship between member countries, promote cooperation in political, economic, scientific-technological, cultural, and educational spheres and in energy, communications, environmental protection, and to preserve and safeguard regional peace.

Headquarters: Beijing

Organization: Council of Heads of State, Council of Heads of Government, Council of Foreign Ministers, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General, appointed for a 3-year term

Members (8): China, India (24 June 2016), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan (24 June 2016), Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

Observers (5): Afghanistan (2012), India (2005), Iran (2005), Mongolia (2004), and Pakistan (2005).

Meetings: Summit meeting of the Council of Heads of State, Council of Heads of Government annual meeting

26 Apr. 1996 1st Shanghai Five Summit meeting, Shanghai

8-10 July 2015 Council of Heads of State meeting, Ufa, Bashkortostan Republic, Russia

14-15 Dec. 2015 Council of Heads of Government meeting, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China

23-24 June 2016 Council of Heads of State meeting, Tashkent

Website: www.sectsco.org

 

Regional Antiterrorist Structure (RATS): RATS Council, Supreme Chairman, RATS Executive Committee

 

Socialist International (SI)

Socialist International (SI) was reestablished on 30 June 1951 as the worldwide organization of social democratic, socialist and labor parties.

Headquarters: London

Members (161): National socialist parties and organizations

Meetings: Biennial Congress

Website: www.socialistinternational.org

 

South Atlantic Territories Cooperation Forum (SATC)

Established in November 2010 by elected island members and UK representatives at the UK Overseas Territories Consultative Council (OTCC) to promote cooperation on common projects.

Members (4): Ascension Islands, Falkland Islands, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.

Meetings: Forum

17 Feb. 2011 1st Forum  (via teleconference)

 

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Established on 8 December 1985 to promote cultural, economic, and social cooperation.

Headquarters: Kathmandu

Organization: Summit of Heads of State and Government, Council of Ministers, Programming Committee, Secretariat--headed by Secretary General

Members (8): Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Meetings: Biennial Summit of Heads of State and Government

9 Nov. 2016 18th Summit of Heads of State and Government, Pakistan

Website: www.saarc-sec.org

 

Southeastern European Cooperative Initiative (SECI)

Established on 1996 to stabilize the region through promoting cooperation among Southeast European states and through foreign investments.

Headquarters: Bucharest

Organization: SECI Coordinator, Director, Secretariat

Partners (13): Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia (2000), Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Turkey.

Website: www.secicenter.org

 

South East European Cooperation Process (SEECP)

Established on 6-7 July 1996 to consolidate regional stability and security and promote cooperation in cultural, humanitarian, and social fields.

Treaty Basis: South East European Stabilization Pact of May 1999.

Headquarters: Sofia

Organization: Summit of Heads of State and Government, Chairmanship-in-Office

Members (12): Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo (2014), Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia (23 June 2010), and Turkey.

Candidate: Albania (June 2014)

Meetings: Summit of Heads of State and Government

Website: www.seecp-turkey.org

 

            Regional Economic Forum for Southeast Europe (REFSEE)

 

Regional Secretariat for Parliamentary Cooperation in SEE—headed by Secretary General

            Meetings: Conference of SEECP Speakers

            Website: www.rspcsee.org

 

Southern African Development Community (SADC)

Established as Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) on 1 April 1980 to promote regional economic development and integration. Reorganized as SADC on 17 August 1992. SADC launched a mutual defense pact on 27 August 2003.

Headquarters: Gaborone

Organization: Summit of Heads of State and Government, Organ on Politics, Defense and Security, Tribunal, Council of Ministers, Executive Secretariat--headed by Executive Secretary

Members (15): Angola, Botswana, Congo (DR), Lesotho, Madagascar (suspended on 31 Mar. 2009), Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles (Sep. 1997), South Africa (Aug. 1994), Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Meetings: Annual Summit of Heads of State and Government

Website: www.sadc.int

 

Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe

Initiative of the European Union (EU) launched at summit meeting in Sarajevo on 30 July 1999.

Headquarters: Brussels

Organization: Regional Cooperation Council, Special Coordinator, Secretariat

Country Partners (41): Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

Other Partners (21): Including Council of Europe (CE), European Union (EU), International Monetary Fund/World Bank (IMF/IBDR), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and United Nations (UN).

Observer (1): Ukraine

Meetings: Regional Summits and Conferences

Website: www.stabilitypact.org

 

Union for the Mediterranean/Union pour la Méditerranée (UPM)

(Mediterranean Union)

Established on 13 July 2008 after the European Council of the European Union approved the relaunching of the Barcelona Process (EUROMED) to develop the Euromediterranean Partnership.

Headquarters: Barcelona, Spain

Organization: Co-Presidents (2), Euro-Mediterranean Regional and Local Assembly, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (44): 27 Members of European Union (EU), 3 EU Candidates (Croatia, Macedonia, and Turkey), 9 Mediterranean Partners: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian Authority, Syria (suspended December 2011), and Tunisia, and Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mauritania, Monaco, Montenegro.

Observer (1): Libya.

Meetings: Summits of Heads of State and Government, Regional Assembly meetings

13 July 2008 1st Summit of Heads of State and Government, Paris: Foundation meeting.

Status: Participation in the Union is “institutionally suspended” by the five members of the Arab Maghreb Union (UAM) since the Israeli invasion of Gaza on 27 December 2008.

Union of South American Nations/Unión de Naciones Suramericanas/União de Nações Sul-Americanas (UNASUR/UNASUL)

Established on 23 May 2008 at the 3rd Summit of Heads of State in Brasília and the signing of the Constituive Treaty replacing the South American Community of Nations which was created on 8 December 2004 and renamed on 16 April 2007. Its purpose is to advance South American economic integration through uniting the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) and the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR).

Headquarters: Quito

Organization: President, Secretariat General—headed by Secretary General

Members (12)—4 Andean Community of Nations: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; 5 MERCOSUR: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela; and Chile, Guyana, and Suriname.

Meetings: Summit of Heads of State

8 Dec. 2004 2nd South American Summit, Cuzco, Peru: Declaration about the South American Community of Nations.

29-30 Sep. 2005 1st Heads of State Summit, Brasilia

5 Dec. 2014 8th Heads of State Summit, Quito

Website: http://www.unasursg.org/

 

            South American Parliament, Cochabamba Bolivia.

           

            Bank of the South, Caracas.

 

United Nations (UN)

Established on 26 June 1945, effective on 24 October 1945, as a successor to the League of Nations (its assets were transferred to the United Nations on 18 April 1946) to maintain international peace and security and to promote cultural, economic, humanitarian, and social cooperation.

Treaty Basis: Charter of the United Nations of 26 June 1945.

Headquarters: New York, NY USA

Organization: General Assembly, UN Security Council, UN Economic and Social Council, UN Human Rights Council, International Court of Justice, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (193): Afghanistan (19 Nov. 1946), Albania (14 Dec. 1955), Algeria (8 Oct. 1962), Andorra (28 July 1993), Angola (1 Dec. 1976), Antigua and Barbuda (11 Nov. 1981), Argentina (24 Oct. 1945), Armenia (2 Mar. 1992), Australia (1 Nov. 1945), Austria (14 Dec. 1955), Azerbaijan (2 Mar. 1992), Bahamas (18 Sep. 1973), Bahrain (21 Sep. 1971), Bangladesh (17 Sep. 1974), Barbados (9 Dec. 1966), Belarus1 (24 Oct. 1945), Belgium (27 Dec. 1945), Belize (25 Sep. 1981), Benin (20 Sep. 1960), Bhutan (21 Sep. 1971), Bolivia (14 Nov. 1945), Bosnia and Herzegovina (22 May 1992), Botswana (17 Oct. 1966), Brazil (24 Oct. 1945), Brunei (21 Sep. 1984), Bulgaria (14 Dec. 1955), Burkina Faso (20 Sep. 1960), Burma (19 Apr. 1948), Burundi (18 Sep. 1962), Cambodia (14 Dec. 1955), Cameroon (20 Sep. 1960), Canada (9 Nov. 1945), Cape Verde (16 Sep. 1975), Central African Republic (20 Sep. 1960), Chad (20 Sep. 1960), Chile (24 Oct. 1945), China (24 Oct. 1945), Colombia (5 Nov. 1945), Comoros (12 Nov. 1975), Congo (B) (20 Sep. 1960), Costa Rica (2 Nov. 1945), Croatia (22 May 1992), Cuba (24 Oct. 1945), Cyprus (20 Sep. 1960), Czech Republic2 (19 Jan. 1993), Congo (DR)3 (20 Sep. 1960), Denmark (24 Oct. 1945), Djibouti (20 Sep. 1977), Dominica (18 Dec. 1978), Dominican Republic (24 Oct. 1945), East Timor/Timor Leste15 (27 Sep 2002), (Ecuador (21 Dec. 1945), Egypt4 (24 Oct. 1945), El Salvador (24 Oct. 1945), Equatorial Guinea (12 Nov. 1968), Eritrea (28 May 1993), Estonia (17 Sep. 1991), Ethiopia (13 Nov. 1945), Fiji (13 Oct. 1970), Finland (14 Dec. 1955), France (24 Oct. 1945), Gabon (20 Sep. 1960), Gambia (21 Sep. 1965), Georgia (31 July 1992), Germany5 (18 Sep. 1973), Ghana (8 Mar. 1957), Greece (25 Oct. 1945), Grenada (17 Sep. 1974), Guatemala (21 Nov. 1945), Guinea (12 Dec. 1958), Guinea-Bissau (17 Sep. 1974), Guyana (20 Sep. 1966), Haiti (24 Oct. 1945), Honduras (17 Dec. 1945), Hungary (14 Dec. 1955), Iceland (19 Nov. 1946), India (30 Oct. 1945), Indonesia (6) (28 Sep. 1950), Iran (24 Oct. 1945), Iraq  (21 Dec. 1945), Ireland (14 Dec. 1955), Israel (11 May 1949), Italy  (14 Dec. 1955), Ivory Coast (20 Sep. 1960), Jamaica (18 Sep. 1962), Japan (18 Dec. 1956), Jordan (14 Dec. 1955), Kazakhstan (2 Mar. 1992), Kenya (16 Dec. 1963), Kiribati (14 Sep. 1999), Korea (DPRK) (17 Sep. 1991), Korea (ROK) (17 Sep. 1991), Kuwait (14 May 1963), Kyrgyzstan (2 Mar. 1992), Laos (14 Dec. 1955), Latvia (17 Sep. 1991), Lebanon (24 Oct. 1945), Lesotho (17 Oct. 1966), Liberia (2 Nov. 1945), Libya  (14 Dec. 1955), Liechtenstein  (18 Sep. 1990), Lithuania (17 Sep. 1991), Luxembourg (24 Oct. 1945), Macedonia11 (8 Apr. 1993), Madagascar (20 Sep. 1960),  Malawi (1 Dec. 1964), Malaysia7 (17 Sep. 1957), Maldives (21 Sep. 1965), Mali (28 Sep. 1960), Malta (1 Dec. 1964), Marshall Islands (17 Sep. 1991), Mauritania (27 Oct. 1961), Mauritius (24 Apr. 1968), Mexico (7 Nov. 1945), Micronesia (17 Sep. 1991), Moldova (2 Mar. 1992), Monaco (28 May 1993), Mongolia  (27 Oct. 1961), Montenegro (28 June 2006), Morocco  (12 Nov. 1956), Mozambique (16 Sep. 1975), Namibia (23 Apr. 1990), Nauru  (14 Sep. 1999), Nepal (14 Dec. 1955), Netherlands (10 Dec. 1945), New Zealand (24 Oct. 1945), Nicaragua (24 Oct. 1945), Niger (20 Sep. 1960), Nigeria (7 Oct. 1960), Norway (27 Nov. 1945), Oman (7 Oct. 1971), Pakistan (30 Sep. 1947), Palau (15 Dec. 1994), Panama (13 Nov. 1945), Papua New Guinea (10 Oct. 1975), Paraguay (24 Oct. 1945), Peru (31 Oct. 1945), Philippines (24 Oct. 1945), Poland (24 Oct. 1945), Portugal (14 Dec. 1955), Qatar (21 Sep. 1971), Romania (14 Dec. 1955), Russia8 (24 Oct. 1945), Rwanda  (18 Sep. 1962), Saint Kitts and Nevis (23 Sep. 1983), Saint Lucia (18 Sep. 1979), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (16 Sep. 1980), Samoa (15 Dec. 1976), San Marino (2 Mar. 1992), São Tomé e Principe (16 Sep. 1975), Saudi Arabia (24 Oct. 1945), Senegal (28 Sep. 1960), Seychelles (21 Sep. 1976), Sierra Leone  (27 Sep. 1961), Singapore (21 Sep. 1965), Slovakia9 (19 Jan. 1993), Slovenia (22 May 1992), Solomon Islands (19 Sep. 1978), Somalia (20 Sep. 1960), South Africa (7 Nov. 1945), South Sudan (no. 193 14 July 2011), Spain (14 Dec. 1955), Sri Lanka (14 Dec. 1955), Sudan (12 Nov. 1956), Suriname (4 Dec. 1975), Swaziland  (24 Sep. 1968), Sweden (19 Nov. 1946), Switzerland16 (10 September 2002), Syria10 (24 Oct. 1945), Tajikistan (2 Mar. 1992), Tanzania12 (14 Dec. 1961), Thailand  (16 Dec. 1946), Togo (20 Sep. 1960), Tonga (14 Sep. 1999), Trinidad and Tobago (18 Sep. 1962), Tunisia (12 Nov. 1956), Turkey (24 Oct. 1945), Turkmenistan (2 Mar. 1992), Tuvalu (5 Sep. 2000), Uganda (25 Oct. 1962), Ukraine (24 Oct. 1945), United Arab Emirates (9 Dec. 1971), United Kingdom (24 Oct. 1945), United States of America (24 Oct. 1945), Uruguay (18 Dec. 1945), Uzbekistan (2 Mar. 1992), Vanuatu (15 Sep. 1981), Venezuela (15 Nov. 1945), Vietnam (20 Sep. 1977), Yemen14 (30 Sep. 1947), Serbia17  (24 Oct. 1945, 2 Sep 1992-1 Nov 2000 suspended, 1 Nov 2000 readmitted), Zambia (1 Dec. 1964), and Zimbabwe (25 Aug. 1980).

Observers (22+36*): African Union (AU), Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization, Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Central American Integration System (SICA), Commonwealth Secretariat, European Union (EU), International Committee of the Red Cross, International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies,  International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), International Organization for Migration (IOM), International Organization of la Francophonie, International Seabed Authority, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU),  League of Arab States (LAS), Organization of the Islamic Conference  (OIC), Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC (Dec. 2014), Palestinian Authority (PA) (29 Nov. 2012), Partners in Population and Development (PPD), Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and Vatican City State/Holy See.

*Intergovernmental organizations invited as observers.

Meetings: Annual sessions of the General Assembly held in New York, NY USA

Meetings (all in New York NY USA):

Jan. 1946 1st Session of the General Assembly, London

15 Sep. 2015- Sep. 2016 70th Session of the General Assembly

Website: www.un.org

 

Notes:

1 On 19 September 1991, Belarus changed its name from Byelorussia.

2 Czechoslovakia was an original member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. On 10 December 1992, it informed the UN that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as successor States, would apply for membership in the United Nations. The Czech Republic was admitted on 19 January 1993.

3 Zaire joined the United Nations on 20 September 1960. On 17 May 1997, its name was changed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

4 Egypt and Syria were original members of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations. On 2 September 1971, the United Arab Republic changed its name to the Arab Republic of Egypt.

5 The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic were admitted to membership in the United Nations on 18 September 1973. Through the accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany, effective from 3 October 1990, the two German States united to form one sovereign State.

6 On 20 January 1965, Indonesia announced its decision to withdraw from the United Nations “at this stage and under the present circumstances”. On 19 September 1966, it announced its decision “to resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities”. On 28 September 1966, the General Assembly invited Indonesia to take seats in the Assembly.

7 The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations on 17 September 1957. On 16 September 1963, its name was changed to Malaysia, following the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore became an independent State on 9 August 1965 and a member of the United Nations on 21 September 1965.

8 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was an original member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. On 24 December 1991, The Russian president informed the UN that the membership of the Soviet Union in the Security Council and all other UN organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

9 Czechoslovakia was an original member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. On 10 December 1992, it informed the UN that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as successor states, would apply for membership in the United Nations. On 19 January 1993, the Slovak Republic was admitted as a member state.

10 Egypt and Syria were original members of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single Member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations.

11 The General Assembly decided on 8 April 1993 to admit to United Nations membership the state being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the United Nations as “The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” pending settlement of the difference that had arisen over its name.

12 Tanganyika was a member of the United Nations from 14 December 1961 and Zanzibar was a member from 16 December 1963. Following the ratification on 26 April 1964 of Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar continued as a single member, changing its name to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 November 1964.

14 Yemen was admitted to membership in the United Nations on 30 September 1947 and Democratic Yemen on 14 December 1967. On 22 May 1990, the two countries merged and have since been represented as one member with the name “Yemen”.

15 East Timor is the 191st and most recent member admitted in 2002.

16 Switzerland is the 190th member admitted in 2002.

17 On 4 February 2003, following the adoption and promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro by the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the official name of “Federal Republic of Yugoslavia” was changed to Serbia and Montenegro.

Date of admission as member shown in parentheses.

 

            United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

            Established on 24 October 1945 to maintain international peace and security.

Meetings:

7 Sep. 2000 2nd Summit meeting New York NY: Root causes of conflicts, peacekeeping operations and council role.

Members (5+10): Permanent members with veto power (P-5): China, France, Russia, United States of America, and United Kingdom.

Non-permanent members without veto power serving a two-year term ending on 31 December of second year shown:

            2015-2016: Angola, Malaysia, New Zealand, Spain, and Venezuela.

            2016-2017: Egypt, Japan, Senegal, Ukraine, and Uruguay.

            2017-2018: Bolivia, Ethiopia, Italy-Netherlands (sharing), Kazakhstan, and Sweden.

 

            United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

The Council was established as the principal organ to coordinate economic, social, and related work of the 14 UN specialized agencies, functional commissions and five regional commissions. It held its first session on 23 January 1946 in London. The Council also receives reports from 11 UN funds and programs. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues, and for formulating policy recommendations.

            Members (54):

            2014-2016 (18): Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Botswana, China, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Denmark, Georgia, Guatemala, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, Panama, Korea (ROK), Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Togo, and United Kingdom.

 

            United Nations Human Rights Council (HRC)

Established on 15 March 2006 to promote universal respect for the protection of human rights and to address situations of violations of human rights. It replaced the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR).      

Members (47): Elected by the General Assembly for a period of three years at staggered terms.

2014-2017: Algeria, China, Cuba, France, Macedonia, Maldives, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, United Kingdom, and Vietnam.

2015-2018: Albania, Bangladesh, Bolivia*, Botswana*, Congo (B)*, El Salvador, Ghana, India*, Indonesia*Latvia, Netherlands, Nigeria, Paraguay, Portugal, and Qatar.

2016-2019: Belgium,  Burundi, Ecuador, Ethiopia*, Georgia, Germany*, Ivory Coast*, Kenya*, Korea (ROK)*,  Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Panama, Philippines, Slovenia, Switzerland, Togo, United Arab Emirates*, and Venezuela*.

            *reelected.

            Meetings: Human Rights Council sessions, all held in Geneva, Switzerland

            Website: www.ohchr.org

 

            United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)

Established on 20 December 2005 to support peace efforts in countries emerging from conflict.       

Members (31)--Elected for a two-year term by the following institutions: Security Council, 7 members, Burkina Faso, Mexico and permanent members China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

Economic and Social Council, 7 members: Algeria, El Salvador, Guinea-Bissau, Korea (ROK), Luxembourg, Morocco, and Poland.

Top UN budget contributors, 5 members: Canada, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, and Sweden.

Top military personnel and civilian personnel providers to UN missions, 5 members: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Nigeria, and Pakistan.

General Assembly, 7 elected members: Benin, Chile, Georgia, Jamaica, South Africa, Thailand, and Uruguay.        

 

Conference on Disarmament (CD)

Established in 1979 to concentrate on cessation of the nuclear arms race, nuclear disarmament, prevention of nuclear war and of war in outer space.

Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

Organization: Conference on Disarmament, Secretary General is the Director-General of the UN Office in Geneva (UNOG)

Members (65): Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria*, Bangladesh*, Belarus*, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Cameroon*, Canada, Chile*, China, Colombia*, Congo (DR), Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland*, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq*, Ireland, Israel*, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea (DPRK)*, Korea (ROK)*, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand*, Nigeria, Norway*, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal*, Slovakia*, South Africa*, Spain*, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland*, Syria*, Tunisia, Turkey*, Ukraine*, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela, Vietnam*, and Zimbabwe*.

*23 countries on the O’Sullivan list admitted as members on 17 June 1996.

Meetings: Annual Conference, divided into three sessions, all held in Geneva, Switzerland

All sessions are held in Geneva, Switzerland

            2015: 19 Jan.-27 Mar. 1st part; 25 May-10 July 2nd part; 3 Aug.-18 Sep. 3rd part.

            2016: 25 Jan.-1 Apr. 1st part; 17 May-1 July 2nd part;  2 Aug.-16 Sep. 3rd part.

 

            Disarmament Commission

            4-22 Apr. 2016 Annual session, New York NY

Website: www.un.org/disarmament/

 

United Nations Agencies, Boards, Centers, Commissions, Conferences, Funds, Institutes, Offices, Organizations, Programs, and Affiliates

Abdus Salam International center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Secretariat, New York NY USA

Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), Geneva, Switzerland

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Santiago, Chile

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Bangkok, Thailand

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Beirut, Lebanon

Executive Board of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy

Inter-Agency Procurement Services Office (IAPSO), Copenhagen, Denmark

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), Washington DC USA

International Bureau of Education (IBE), Geneva, Switzerland

International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Trieste, Italy

International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), Washington DC USA

International Center for Science and High Technology (ICS), Trieste, Italy

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Montreal, Canada

International Civil Service Commission (ICSC), New York NY USA

International Computing Center (ICC), Geneva, Switzerland

International Court of Justice (ICJ), The Hague, Netherlands

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), The Hague, Netherlands

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), Arusha, Tanzania

International Development Association (IDA), Washington DC USA

International Finance Corporation (IFC), Washington DC USA

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Rome, Italy

International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), Paris, France

International Institute on Aging (INIA), Valetta, Malta

International Labor Organization (ILO), Geneva, Switzerland

International Maritime Organization (IMO), London UK

International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington DC USA

International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), Vienna, Austria

International Seabed Authority (ISA), Kingston, Jamaica

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), Geneva, Switzerland

International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Geneva, Switzerland

International Trade Center (ITC), Geneva, Switzerland

International Training Center of the ILO (ITC/ILO), Turin, Italy

Joint Inspection Unit (JIU), Geneva, Switzerland

Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Geneva, Switzerland

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), Washington DC USA

Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Geneva, Switzerland

Office of Outer Space Affairs (OOSA), Vienna, Austria

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), The Hague, Netherlands

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), Vienna, Austria

UN Board of Auditors, New York NY USA

UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF), New York NY USA

UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), New York NY USA

UN Compensation Commission (UNCC), Geneva, Switzerland

UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), Vienna, Austria

UN Common Supplier Database (UNCSD), Oslo, Norway

UN Communications Group (UNCG), New York NY USA

UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Geneva, Switzerland

UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) Secretariat, Bonn, Germany

UN Democracy Fund (UNDEF) Secretariat, New York NY USA

UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), New York NY USA

UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Paris, France

UN Environment Program (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya

UN Development Program (UNDP), New York NY USA

UN Evaluation Group (UNEG), New York NY USA

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat, Bonn, Germany

UN Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) Secretariat, New York NY USA

UN Group of Experts on Geographical Names, New York NY USA

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights HCHR), Geneva, Switzerland

UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Geneva, Switzerland

UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC), Geneva, Switzerland

UN Human Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT), Nairobi, Kenya

UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria

UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), Geneva, Switzerland

UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), Geneva, Switzerland

UN Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), Rome, Italy

UN Joint Staff Pension Fund (UNJSPF), New York NY USA

UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS), New York NY USA

UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS), Geneva, Switzerland

UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS), New York NY USA

UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Vienna, Austria

UN Peacebuilding Commission, New York NY USA

UN Population Fund (UNFPA), New York NY USA

UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), Gaza/Amman, Jordan

UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), Geneva, Switzerland

UN Security Council (UNSC), New York NY USA

UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB), New York NY USA

UN System Staff College (UNSSC), Turin, Italy

UN University (UNU), Tokyo, Japan

UN Volunteers (UNV), Bonn, Germany

UN Women, New York NY USA

UN World Food Program (WFP), Rome, Italy

Universal Postal Union (UPU), Bern, Switzerland

World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Geneva, Switzerland

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Geneva, Switzerland

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Madrid, Spain

World Trade Organization (WTO), Geneva, Switzerland

 

 

 

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)

Established on 11 February 1991as an international, nonviolent, and democratic membership organization of indigenous peoples, minorities, and unrecognized or occupied territories to protect and promote their human and cultural rights, to preserve their environments, and to find nonviolent solutions to conflicts which affect them.

Headquarters: The Hague

Organization: General Assembly, Presidency, International Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (53): Abkhazia (Georgia, Russia), Afrikaner (South Africa), Ahwazi Arabs (Iran), Assyrians (Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey), Australian Aborigines (Australia), Baloch (Pakistan), Batwa (Rwanda), Burma (Burma), Buryatia (Russia), Cabinda (Angola), Chechen Republic Ichkeria (Russia), Chin (Burma), Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh), Circassia (Georgia), Cordillera (Philippines), Crimea Tatars (Ukraine), Degar Montagnards (Vietnam), East Turkestan (China), Gilgit Baltistan (Pakistan), Greek Minority (Albania), Hmong (Laos), Hungarian Minority (Romania), Inkeri (Russia), Inner Mongolia (China), Iranian Kurdistan (Iran), Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq), Iraqi Turkmen (Iraq), Kalahui Hawaii (USA), Karenni State (Burma), Khmer Krom (Vietnam), Kosovo, Maasai (Kenya-Tanzania), Mapuche (Argentina, Chile), Mon (Burma), Nagalim (Burma-India), Ogaden (Ethiopia), Ogoni (Nigeria), Oromo (Ethiopia), Rehoboth Basters (Namibia), Sanjak Muslims (Montenegro, Serbia), Sindh (Pakistan), Shan (Burma), Skåne/Scania (Sweden), Somaliland (Somalia), Southern Azerbaijan (Iran), Southern Cameroons (Nigeria), Southern Moluccas (Indonesia), Taiwan  (Taiwan), Tibet (China), Tsimshian (Canada), Tuva (Russia), Udmurt (Russia), Vhavenda (South Africa), West Balochistan (Iran), and Zanzibar (Tanzania).

Meetings: General Assembly meetings, at least every 18 months

Website: www.unpo.org

 

 

Visegrád Group (V4)

(Visegrád Four)

Established on 15 February 1991 at Visegrad, Hungary, as a forum for the discussion of mutual matters.

Basis: Organized under the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA).

Headquarters: none

Organization: Summit of V4 Presidents, Meeting of Heads of Government, informal arrangement

Members (4): Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia.

Meetings: Annual Meeting of Heads of Government

15 Feb. 1991 Meeting of Heads of Government, Visegrád, Hungary: Formation of V4.

19 June 2015 Summit of V4 Presidents, Bratislava

4 Sep. 2015 Extraordinary Summit of V4 Presidents, Prague

15 Feb. 2016 Extraordinary Summit of V4 Presidents, Prague

Website: www.visegradgroup.org

 

Wassenaar Arrangement (WA)

Established as the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) on 22 November 1949-18 December 1995 to control the export of arms, dual-use goods, and technical data to Warsaw Pact and COMECON countries. The international regime was modified* on 18 December 1995 and TWA established on 12 July 1996.

Headquarters: Vienna

Organization: Plenary, Secretariat

Members (40): Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea (ROK), Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States.

*Initiated by a group of COCOM members known as the New Forum, also referred to as The Wassenaar Arrangement (TWA).

Meetings: Annual Plenary

Website: www.wassenaar.org

 

West African Economic and Monetary Union/Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest-Africaine (WAEMU/UEMOA)

Established on 12 May 1962 as West African Monetary Union (UMOA) and expanded on 10 January 1994 to strengthen competitiveness of economic and financial activities of member states.

Headquarters: Ouagadougou

Organization: Summit Conference of Heads of State and Government, Council of Ministers, Commission—headed by the President

Members (8): Benin*, Burkina Faso*, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast*, Mali (1967), Niger*, Senegal*, and Togo (1963).

*Original member

Meetings: Annual Summit Conference of Heads of State and Government

Website: www.uemoa.int

 

            West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) formed in 2000.

            Uniform Eco currency to be established on 1 July 2005.

 

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Established as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) on 30 October 1947 to enforce adopted trade rules. The GATT organization ended on 31 December 1994 and WTO was established on 1 January 1995 as successor organization.

Treaty Basis: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 30 October 1947.

Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

Organization: Ministerial Conference, General Council, Secretariat—headed by Director General

Members (164): Afghanistan (29 July 2016), Albania (8 Sep. 2000), Angola (23 Nov. 1996), Antigua and Barbuda*, Argentina*, Armenia (5 Feb. 2003), Australia*, Austria*, Bahrain*, Bangladesh*, Barbados*, Belgium*, Belize*, Benin (22 Feb. 1996), Bolivia (12 Sep. 1995), Botswana (31 May 1995), Brazil*, Brunei*,  Bulgaria (1 Dec. 1996), Burkina Faso (3 June 1995), Burma*, Burundi  (23 July 1995), Cambodia (13 Oct. 2004), Cameroon (13 Dec. 1995), Canada*, Cape Verde (23 July 2008), Central African Republic (31 May 1995), Chad (19 Oct. 1996), Chile*, China (11 Dec. 2001), China-Hong Kong*, China-Macau*, Colombia (30 April 1995), Congo (B) (27 March 1997), Congo (DR) (1 Jan. 1997), Costa Rica*, Croatia (30 Nov. 2000), Cuba (20 April 1995), Cyprus (30 July 1995), Czech Republic*, Denmark*, Djibouti (31 May 1995), Dominica*,  Dominican Republic (9 Mar. 1995), Ecuador (21 Jan. 1996), Egypt (30 June 1995), El Salvador  (7 May 1995), Estonia (13 Nov. 1999),  European Union (European Communities*),  Fiji  (14 Jan. 1996), Finland*,  France*,  Gabon*, Gambia (23 Oct. 1996), Georgia (14 June 2000), Germany*, Ghana*,  Greece*, Grenada (22 Feb. 1996), Guatemala (21 July 1995),  Guinea (25 Oct. 1995), Guinea Bissau (31 May 1995),  Guyana*,  Haiti (30 Jan. 1996), Honduras*, Hungary*,  Iceland*, India*, Indonesia*, Ireland*, Israel (21 April 1995), Italy*, Ivory Coast*, Jamaica (9 March 1995), Japan*, Jordan (11 Apr. 2000), Kazakhstan (27 July 2015), Kenya*, Korea (ROK)*,  Kuwait*, Kyrgyzstan (20 Dec. 1998), Laos (2 February 2013), Latvia (10 Feb. 1999), Lesotho (31 May 1995), Liberia (14 June 2016), Liechtenstein (1 Sep. 1995), Lithuania (31 May 2001), Luxembourg*, Macedonia (4 Apr. 2003), Madagascar  (17 Nov. 1995), Malawi (31 May 1995), Malaysia*, Maldives (31 May 1995), Mali (31 May 1995), Malta*, Mauritania (31 May 1995), Mauritius*, Mexico*, Moldova, Mongolia (29 Jan. 1997), Montenegro (29 April 2012), Morocco*, Mozambique (26 Aug. 1995), Namibia*, Nepal (23 Apr. 2004), Netherlands incl. the Netherlands Antilles*,  New Zealand*, Nicaragua (3 Sep. 1995), Niger (13 Dec. 1996), Nigeria*,  Norway*, Oman, Pakistan*, Panama (6 Sep. 1997), Papua New Guinea (9 June 1996), Paraguay*, Peru*, Philippines*, Poland (1 July 1995), Portugal*, Qatar (13 Jan. 1996), Romania*, Russia (22 August 2012), Rwanda (22 May 1996), Saint Kitts and Nevis (21 Feb. 1996), Saint Lucia*, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines*, Samoa (10 May 2012), Saudi Arabia (11 Dec. 2005), Senegal*, Seychelles (28 Apr. 2015), Sierra Leone (23 July 1995), Singapore*, Slovakia*, Slovenia  (30 July 1995),  Solomon Islands (26 July 1996), South Africa*, Spain*, Sri Lanka*, Suriname*, Swaziland*, Sweden*, Switzerland*, Taiwan (1 Jan. 2002), Tajikistan (2 March 2013), Tanzania*,  Thailand*, Togo (31 May 1995),  Tonga (27 July 2007), Trinidad and Tobago (1 March 1995), Tunisia (29 March 1995), Turkey (26 March 1995), Uganda*, Ukraine (16 May 2008), United Arab Emirates (10 April 1996), United Kingdom*, United States of America*, Uruguay*, Vanuatu (24 August 2012), Venezuela*, Vietnam (11 Jan. 2007), Yemen (26 June 2014), Zambia*, and Zimbabwe (5 March 1995).

Applicants: Equatorial Guinea (4 Apr. 2002), Libya (19 June 2003), and Syria (14 Nov. 2001).

Observers (20): Algeria, Andorra, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Belarus, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, São Tomé e Principe, Serbia, Sudan, Syria, Uzbekistan, and Vatican. (All but the Vatican must start accession negotiations within five years of becoming observers).

*Original member of WTO as of 1 January 1995 (77).

Meetings: Biennial meetings of the General Council and the Ministerial Conference

9-13 Dec. 1996 1st Ministerial Conference, Singapore

15-18 Dec. 2015 10th Ministerial Conference, Nairobi

Website: www.wto.org

 

PROPOSED OR DEVELOPING ORGANIZATIONS

 

African Economic Community

Effort to form a 26-nation free trade area comprising the Common Market for east and Southern Africa (COMESA), East African Community (EAC), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

Meetings:

11-12 June 2011 2nd Tripartite Summit, in Johannesburg, South Africa

 

Asia-Pacific Union

Proposed by the Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd, in June 2008, to cover economic, political, and strategic issues.

 

BASIC Countries

Four-nation bloc formed on 28 November 2009 to act jointly on climate change and global warming issues.

Partners: Brazil, China, India, and South Africa.

Meetings:

24 Jan 2010 Ministerial meeting, in Copenhagen.

 

Caucasian Union

Proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, on 14 August 2008, as the Caucasus Stability and Partnership Platform.

Scope: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, and Turkey.

 

Central Asian Union

Proposed by the President of Kazakhstan on 26 April 2007 to advance economic integration through adopting a single currency, creating a common market, and handle interstate issues, incl. security.

Prospective members (5): Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan*.

*The President of Uzbekistan has rejected the proposed union.

 

Interparliamentary Assembly

The Interparliamentary Assembly [of Breakaway Republics] was formed in summer 2006.

Members (3): Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Transdniestria.

Meetings: Council of the Interparliamentary Assembly

 

M8

A Muslim grouping proposed by Turkey at the Conference on Cooperation and Development in Istanbul on 23-24 October 1996 to insure closer cooperation in agriculture, finance, industry, and trade.

Secretariat: Istanbul

Members (8): Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Turkey.

Also referred to as Muslim Bloc.

 

Persian Speaking Union

Presidents of the three Persian-speaking countries attending the 11th Meeting of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) on 11-13 March 2008 agreed to create an Economic Council.

Scope: Afghanistan, Iran, and Tajikistan.

            Economic Council

 

Pan Melanesian Economic Union

Proposed in February 2011 to the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) by the Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands. He sees it as a means of harnessing regional investment financing, investments in telecommunications, mining, aviation, shipping, and tourism.

 

Sanaa’s Forum for Cooperation/Sanaa Cooperation Forum (SCF)

Scope: Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.

 

 

DEFUNCT ORGANIZATIONS

 

Arab Cooperation Council (ACC)

Established on 16 February 1989 to promote economic cooperation and integration leading to an Arab Common Market.

Members (4): Egypt (withdrew in 1994), Iraq, Jordan, and Yemen.

Presumed inactive or suspended since August 1990.

 

Baghdad Pact—see Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)

 

Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)

Established on 24 February 1955 as Baghdad Pact to cooperate in security and defense. On 21 August 1959 it was redesignated as Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) and abandoned in January 1979.

Treaty Basis: Baghdad Pact of 24 February 1955

Headquarters: Ankara

Members (3): Iran, Pakistan, Turkey and United Kingdom. Iraq (1954-1959).

Observer (1): United States.

 

Contadora Group

Established on 5 January 1983 and evolved into the Rio Group in December 1986.

Members (4): Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela.

 

 

Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM)

Established on 22 November 1949 to control the export of arms, dual-use goods, and technical data to Warsaw Pact and COMECON countries. Since 18 December 1995 known as The Wassenaar Arrangement (TWA).

Members (17): Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States.

Cooperating countries (8): Austria, Finland, Ireland, Korea (ROK), New Zealand, Singapore, Sweden, and Switzerland.

 

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON/CEMA/CMEA)

Established on 25 January 1949 to assist member states in the planned development of the national economies. Dissolved on 28 June 1991.

Secretariat: Moscow

Members (10): Bulgaria*, Cuba, Czechoslovakia*, Germany* (GDR), Hungary*, Mongolia, Poland*, Romania*, USSR*, and Vietnam.

Associate: Yugoslavia.

Observers (7): Afghanistan, Angola, Ethiopia, Laos, Mozambique, Nicaragua, and Yemen.

*Founding member

 

Eurasian Economic Community/Evraziyskoe Ekonomicheskoe Soobshchestvo (EurAsEC/EAEC/EVRAZES)

Established on 10 October 2000 to create a common payment system, represent the community in international organizations, and to provide equal access to foreign investors. Replaced the Customs Union of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC/TSAS). The Single Economic Space of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation was launched on 1 July 2012.

Termination of activities: Agreement signed on 10 October 2014, termination effective 1 January 2015.

Treaty Basis: Treaty of Eurasian Economic Community of 10 October 2000 in Astana.

Headquarters: Almaty, Kazakhstan, and Moscow

Organization: Supreme Eurasian Economic Council (formerly Interstate Council), Interparliamentary Assembly, Secretariat—headed by Secretary General

Members (5): Belarus (20 percent of vote), Kazakhstan (20 percent of vote), Kyrgyzstan (10 percent of vote), Russia (40 percent of vote), Tajikistan (10 percent of vote), and Uzbekistan (suspended since 12 December 2008).

Observers (3): Armenia, Moldova, Ukraine.

Meetings: Interstate Council, meeting at least annually

10 Oct. 2000 Summit meeting, Astana: Signing of treaty.

1 Sep. 2001 1st  Heads of state session, Minsk

29 Apr. 2014 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council meeting, Minsk

29 May 2014 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council meeting, Astana

10 Oct. 2014 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council meeting, Minsk

23 Dec. 2014 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council meeting, Moscow

Website: www.evrazes.com

 

Customs Union, approved at Sochi in August 2006, effective on 1 July 2010. The Single Economic Space was launched on 1 January 2012.

            Members (4): Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia.

Observer (1): Ukraine. The prime minister announced on 23 April 2013 that the country had obtained observer status and was in the process of signing a cooperation agreement.

Applicant (1): Armenia.

 

Eurasian Union

Proposed by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation on 3 October 2011 as an economic and political union of post-Soviet states, excluding the Baltic countries.

A planned summit meeting on 19 March 2012 was cancelled when Belarus raised an objection. Establishment of the union has been postponed until 2015. See Eurasian Economic Community and Eurasian Economic Union

 

Group of 3 (G3)—The Big Three

Wartime alliance 1941-1945.

Members (3): Britain, Soviet Union, and the United States of America.

 

Group of 8/Grupo de los Ocho (G8)

Established in December 1986 to provide a forum for consultation on Latin American issues.

Members (8): Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela (Oct. 1975-3 June 1977). See Rio Group

 

Group of 19 (G-19)

Established on October 1975 and dissolved on 3 June 1977.

Members (19): Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Cameroon, Congo (DR), Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.

 

League of Nations/Ligue des Nations

Established on 10 January 1920 to promote international cooperation and to achieve international peace and security. It practically ceased to function by 1939 and its assets were transferred to the United Nations on 18 April 1946.

Headquarters: Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland

Members (43): Afghanistan (1934), Argentina*, Australia*, Belgium*, Bolivia*,  Bulgaria (1920), Canada*,  China*, Colombia*, Cuba*, Czechoslovakia*, Denmark*, Dominican Republic (1924), Ecuador (1934), Egypt (1937), Estonia (1921), Ethiopia (1923), Finland (1920), France*, Greece*, India*, Iraq (1932), Ireland (1923), Latvia (1921), Lithuania (1921), Luxembourg (1920), Mexico (1931), Netherlands*, New Zealand*, Norway*, Panama*, Persia (Iran)*, Poland*, Portugal*, Siam (Thailand)*, South Africa*, Sweden*, Switzerland*, Turkey (1932), United Kingdom*, Uruguay*, Venezuela*, and Yugoslavia*. Withdrawals (19, 14 of 42 original members): Albania (1920-1939, annexed by Italy), Austria (1920-1938, annexed by Germany), Brazil* (1920-1926), Chile* (1920-1938), Costa Rica* (1920-1925), El Salvador* (1920-1937), Germany (1926-1933), Guatemala* (1920-1936), Haiti* (1920-1942), Honduras* (1920-1936), Hungary (1922-1939), Italy* (1920-1937), Japan* (1920-1933), Nicaragua* (1920-1936), Paraguay* (1920-1935), Peru* (1920-1939), Rumania* (1920-1940), Spain* (1920-1939), and Venezuela* (1920-1938). Expulsions (1): Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (1934-1939).

*Original member

 

Organization of African Unity (OAU)—see African Union (AU)

Established on 25 May 1963 to strengthen unity between African states, improve living conditions, and abolish all forms of colonialism. Dissolved on 25 May 2001.

Headquarters: Addis Ababa

Members (53): Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo (B), Congo (DR), Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar (suspended on 22 June 2002), Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, São Tomé e Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (1994), Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Meetings: Summit Meetings, Ministerial Council meetings

Note: Summit is the Assembly of Heads of State and Government.

 

Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)

Established on 16 April 1948 to administer the US European Recovery Program (ERP)—the Marshall Plan—and organize cooperative efforts for mutual economic development. Replaced by the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD).

Headquarters: Paris

Members (16): Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, West Germany (FRG) (1949), Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

Associate members (2): Canada (1950), United States of America (1950).

 

Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC/TsAS)

Established in 1991 as the Central Asian Commonwealth (CAC), renamed in 1994 Central Asian Economic Union (CAEU), Central Asian Cooperation in 1998, and Organization of Central Asian Cooperation (OCAC) on 28 February 2002. Its purpose is to advance economic integration and expand cultural, educational, political, scientific-technical, and social relations. Replaced by the Eurasian Economic Community/Evraziyskoe Ekonomicheskoe Soobshchestvo (EurAsEC/EAEC/EVRAZES) in October 2010.

Members (5): Kazakhstan*, Kyrgyzstan*, Russia (2004), Tajikistan (withdrew 1994-1998)*, and Uzbekistan*.

Observers (3): Georgia, Turkey, and Ukraine.

*Founding member, incl. Turkmenistan which withdrew in 1994.

 

South-East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO)

Established on 8 September 1954 to strengthen collective self-defense and to promote economic well-being and development. Disbanded on 30 June 1977.

Treaty Basis: Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty of 8 September 1954 at Manila.

Headquarters: Bangkok

Members (8): Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

 

Warsaw Pact/Warsaw Treaty Organization (WP/WTO)

Established on 14 May 1955 to form a collective security system. Dissolved on 1 July 1991.

Headquarters: Moscow

Members (7): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany/German Democratic Republic (GDR), Hungary, Poland, Romania, and USSR. Albania withdrew on 13 September 1968 after remaining absent since 1965.

 

Western European Union (WEU)

Established as Brussels Treaty Organization on 17 March 1948 to cooperate in efforts to create in Western Europe a firm basis for European recovery, to assist each other in collective self-defense, and to prevent Germany from renewing a policy of aggression. On 23 October 1954 the treaty was modified to allow Germany and Italy to join and the organization was renamed WEU. On 24 March 1997, France and Germany proposed to the European Union (EU) to gradually integrate the WEU into the EU. At the Ministerial Council meeting on 13 November 2000 it was decided to transfer most security functions to the European Union (EU). Treaty and organization were terminated on 31 March 2010.

Treaty Basis: Brussels Treaty of 17 March 1948 and the Paris Agreements of 23 October 1954.

Headquarters: Brussels

Organization: Spring Meeting of the World Bank Group and the IMF, Permanent Council, WEU Assembly, Secretariat--headed by General Secretary

Members (10): Belgium*, France*, Germany (March 1948), Greece, Italy (March 1948), Luxembourg*, Netherlands*, Portugal (April 1988), Spain (April 1988), and United Kingdom*.

Associate members (7): Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland (Nov. 1992), Norway (Nov. 1992), Poland, and Turkey (Nov. 1992).

Associate partners (7): Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. Observers (5): Austria, Denmark (Nov. 1992), Finland, Ireland (Nov. 1992), and Sweden.

Meetings: Semi-annual meeting of the WEU Assembly

*Founding member

Website: www.weu.int

 

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS

 

Africa-Arab Summit Meeting

21-22 Nov. 2013 3rd Africa-Arab Summit, Kuwait City

2016 4th Africa-Arab Summit, Africa

 

Arctic Circle Forum

Established in October 2013 in Reykjavík. Purpose is to convene every year an open group of interested parties--corporations, forums, institutions, organizations, public associations, and think tanks-- for dialog and building relationships to meet Arctic challenges and opportunities.

Membership: Open and undefined.

Meetings: Annually

12-14 Oct. 2013 1st Annual Meeting, Reykjavik

 

Asia Cooperation Dialog (ACD)

Established in 2002 as an inter-governmental body to foster economic cooperation among Asian countries.

Headquarters: Secretariat in Kuwait City

Organization: President, Secretary General

Members (34): Afghanistan, Bahrain*, Bangladesh*, Bhutan, Brunei*, Burma*, Cambodia*, China*, India*, Indonesia*, Iran, Japan*, Kazakhstan, Korea (ROK)*, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos*, Malaysia*, Mongolia, Nepal (2015), Oman, Pakistan*, Philippines, Qatar*, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore*, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand*, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam*.

*Founding members.

Meetings: Summit meetings, ministerial meetings

18-19 June 2002 1st ACD Ministerial Meeting, Cha Am, Thailand

15-17 Oct. 2012 1st Summit meeting, Kuwait City

25 Nov. 2014 13th ACD Ministerial Meeting, Riyadh

Website: www.acd-dialogue.org

 

Baltic Council of Ministers (BCM)

Established in 1994 to facilitate cooperation among the Baltic member governments.

Organization: Prime Ministers’ Council, committees of senior officials

Members (3): Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

 

Cambodia-Lao PDR-Myanmar-Vietnam (CLMV) Summits

22 June 2015 7th Summit, Nay Pyi Taw

 

Caspian Sea Summits

Intergovernmental efforts by littoral states to resolve issues of legal status, environmental protection, and resources resumed in 2002.

Littoral states (5): Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan.

Meetings: Summit of Heads of StatesMay 2002 1st Summit of Heads of States, Ashgabat

29 Sep. 2014 4th Summit of Heads of States, Astrakhan, Russia

 

Conference of American Armies (CAA/CEA)

Established in 1960 to create a debate forum for the exchange of experiences within the armies of the American continent.

Members (19): Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina*, Bolivia*, Brazil*, Canada, Chile*, Colombia*, Costa Rica*, Ecuador*, El Salvador*, Guatemala*, Honduras*, Mexico, Nicaragua*, Panama*, Paraguay*, Peru*, United States of America*, Uruguay*, and Venezuela*.

Observers (7): Barbados, Belize, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago.

1960 1st Conference, United States

Website: www.redcea.org

 

Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)

4 June 2002 Inaugural summit of heads of state and government, Almaty.

20-21 May 2014 4th CICA Summit, Shanghai, China

 

Council of the Americas

27 Apr. 2016 46th Annual Washington Conference of the Americas, Washington DC

 

Eurasian Economic Summit

10-12 Apr. 2012 15th Summit Meeting, Istanbul and Izmir, Turkey

 

Global Connect Initiative

Launched 27 September 2015 to help bridge the digital divide.

14 Apr. 2016 1st Conference, Washington DC

 

International Oil Summit

OPEC-International Energy Agency (IEA)-International Energy Forum (IEF)

4 Apr. 2013 14th International Oil Summit

 

Mediterranean Forum (FOROMED)

Established in 1994.

Organization: Informal arrangement

Members (11): Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey.

 

Munich Security Conference (MSC)

12-14 Feb. 2016 52nd Conference, Munich, Germany

 

North American Leaders’ Summit (NALS)

Mar. 2005 1st Summit, Waco, Texas, USA

29 June 2016 9th Summit, Ottawa

 

Nuclear Security Summit (NSS)

2010 1st Nuclear Security Summit, Washington DC, USA

2012 2nd Nuclear Security Summit, Seoul, Korea (ROK)

24-25 Mar. 2014 3rd Nuclear Security Summit, The Hague, Netherlands

31 Mar.-1 Apr. 2016 4th Nuclear Security Summit, Washington DC

 

Turkey-Afghanistan-Pakistan Trilateral Summit

13 Feb. 2014 8th Summit, Ankara

 

UN Conference on Land-Locked Developing Countries (LLDC)

2-4 June 2015 Livingstone, Zambia

 

UN World Humanitarian Summit

23-24 May 2016 1st Summit, Istanbul, Turkey

 

Weimar Triangle

Established 25 November 1991 by the foreign ministers of France, Germany, and Poland to promote cooperation between the three countries.

Partners (3): France, Germany, and Poland

Meetings: Head of State Summits

21 Sep. 1993 1st Heads of State Summit, Gdańsk, Poland

 

World Economic Forum (WEF), Davos-Klosters, Graubünden, Switzerland

Jan. 1974 1st annual meeting

20-25 Jan 2016 46th annual meeting

 

Sources: International and regional organizations, IO database, government and press announcements, United Nations, US Department of State.

 

Completion: Includes information dated 30 June 2016 or earlier. Completed in July 2016.

 

(Replacing International and Regional Organizations Reference Guide 12th Edition, Global Survey, Vol. 44,  No. 450/5L, December 2014.)

 

(Replacing International and Regional Organizations Meetings, Global Survey Vol. 45, No. 454/5H, January 2015.)

 

 

 

 

 

Published by The International Observer of Washington DC USA