ISSN: 1075-4644

Global Survey Vol. 45 No. 467/10L   September 2015

 

 

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

1900-2015

 

International

18 October 1907 Adoption of the Hague Convention and revised Laws of Land Warfare.

2 March 1919 The Communist International (COMINTERN) is founded in Moscow.

7 February 1924 Tangier is placed under international administration.

17 June 1925 The International Protocol Against the Use of Chemical and Bacteriological Weapons is signed in Geneva.

18 November 1926 Dominions of the British Empire become members with equal status of the Commonwealth of Nations.

27 August 1928 Representatives of 15 states, including France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States of America sign the Kellogg-Briand Treaty that outlaws war.

7 June 1929 Vatican City State is recognized internationally as independent state under temporal government.

11 December 1931 The Parliament of Great Britain enacts the Statute of Westminster which defines the status of dominions as sovereign states. 

31 December 1931 British Commonwealth of Nations replaces Imperial Commonwealth.

25 July 1935 The Communist International (COMINTERN) launches the People’s Front against fascism.

9 September 1939 The French Franc zone is established.

15 May 1943 The Communist International (KOMINTERN) by the Soviet leader.

1-22 July 1944 Representatives of 44 nations meet at Bretton Woods, New York, USA and approve establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or World Bank.

25 December 1945 The French colonial franc zone replaces the franc zone in Africa.

April 1947 Liberal International (LI) is established.

22-27 September 1947 The Information Bureau of Communist and Workers Parties (KOMINFORM) is founded.

30 October 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is signed.

25 January 1949 Communist states establish the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (COMECON).

4 April 1949 Representatives of 12 states in Washington sign the North Atlantic Treaty to establish the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

April 1949 The French colonial franc is renamed Franc of the African Financial Community (CFA).

28 April 1949 British Commonwealth of Nations renamed Commonwealth of Nations.

22 November 1949 Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) is established.

21 October 1950 Geneva Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War is signed.

30 June 1951 Delegates of Socialist parties meet in Frankfurt, Germany, and establish the Socialist International (SI).

1 July 1951 Colombo Plan (CP) is launched.

17 April 1956 The Information Bureau of Communist and Workers Parties (KOMINFORM) is dissolved.

1 February 1958 Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is established.

14 September 1960 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is established.

14 December 1960 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is established and replaces the Organization for European and Economic Cooperation (OEEC).

1961 Centrist Democrat International (CDI) founded.

15 June 1961 Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is launched at a conference in Cairo. (The organization is fully established when its 1st Summit meeting is held on 1-6 September 1961 in Belgrade.)

October 1962 The Group of 10 (G10) is established to coordinate credit policy.

5 August 1963 United Kingdom, United States of America, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) sign Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

15 June 1964 The Group of 77 (G77) is established.

December 1965 Group of Nine (G9) is launched as forum for discussion of matters of mutual interest.

21 February 1966 The French president announces the withdrawal of military forces from NATO and the withdrawal of NATO forces from France.

1 July 1966 France withdraws its forces from NATO.

1 July 1966 NATO headquarters moves to Brussels.

1 July 1968 Representatives of 62 nations sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

25 September 1969 At the 1st Islamic Summit Conference in Rabat the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is launched.

20 March 1970 International Organization of the Francophonie (OIF) is established.

1971 The Group of 24 (G24) is established as Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs as a chapter of the Group of 77 (G77).

10 April 1972 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC) is signed.

26 May 1972 Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems between the United States and the USSR is signed.

1974 Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) or London Suppliers Group is established.

1974 Zangger Committee or Nuclear Exporters Committee is established.

6 June 1975 African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) established.

15-17 November 1975 First Economic Summit meeting of the Group of Six (G6, later G7/G8) in Rambouillet, France.

29 January 1985 Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is established, succeeding the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) (1964-1979).

June 1985 Australia Group coordinating export of biological and chemical weapons is established.

16 April 1987 Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is established.

16 September 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed.

9 September 1989 The Group of 15 (G15) is established.

1990 Association of Small Island States (AOSIS) established.

11 February 1991 Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is established.

28 June 1991 Council for Mutual Economic Aid (COMECON) disbands.

8 December 1991 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is established.

20 December 1991 North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) is established.

21 December 1991 Eight of the remaining states of the Soviet Union, except the Baltic states and Georgia, sign the Alma-Ata Protocol and join the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

14 May 1992 Collective Security Treaty (CST) is signed by nine former states of the Soviet Union in Moscow and the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) is established.

26 March 1993 International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS) is established.

14 May 1993 Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), except Tajikistan, create economic union.

13 June 1994 Group of 3 (G3) is established to coordinate free trade policy.

January 1994 NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) launched.

6 December 1994 OSCE Minsk Group is established.

31 December 1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) ends.

1 January 1995 World Trade Organization (WTO) succeeds the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

27 February 1995 International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) is established.

18 December 1995 The Wassenaar Arrangement (TWA/WA) replaces the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM).

12 July 1996 Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies is signed.

17 July 1996 Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP) established.

29 April 1997 Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is established.

30 May 1997 The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) replaces the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC).

8 July 1997 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) invites Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovenia to become members.

15 June 1997 Developing Eight (D-8)/Organization for Economic Cooperation is announced.

17 May 1998 The Group of 7 (G7) becomes the Group of 8 (G8).

5 May 1998 India becomes the world’s sixth declared nuclear power.

15 February 1999 Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (Anti-Bribery Convention) of the OECD is signed.

17 June 1999 The Parliamentary Union of OIC Member States (PUIC) is established.

16 December 1999 The Group of 20 (G20) is established.

27 June 2000 Community of Democracies (CD) is launched.

19-20 May 2001 The Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) is launched at a ministerial conference in Tehran.

23 July 2001 World Climate summit meeting in Bonn, Germany, agrees to minimum compromise on reduction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

10 October 2001 Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) is established.

18 April 2005 A conclave of 155 cardinals in Vatican City choses a new pope.

8 December 2006 Biological Weapons Convention Implementation Support Unit (BWC ISU) is established.

24 October 2008 Greatest declines in stock value is recorded at world stock exchanges.

23 December 2008 The Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) becomes an inter-governmental organization.

26 January 2009 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is established.

18 March 2009 Outbreak of H1N1 or swine flu pandemic.

16 June 2009 First summit meeting of the so-called BRIC states of Brazil, Russia, India, and China in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

14 April 2011 BRIC States expanded to BRICS States.

2 May 2011 US military commandoes secretly enter Pakistan and kill the head of al-Qa’ida at his quarters outside Abbottabad.

28 June 2011 Organization of the Islamic Conference is renamed Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

7 December 2013 World trade Organization (WTO) members sign the ‘Bali package’ trade facilitation agreement.

24 March 2014 Russia is suspended from Group of Eight (G8).

2 April 2014 Palestine State joins 13 Geneva Conventions.

29 May 2014 Presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation in Astana sign treaty establishing the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU).

10 October 2014 Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) is terminated.

1 January 2015 Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) comes into force.

 

League of Nations

28 April 1919 The Versailles peace conference launches the League of Nations.

10 January 1920 League of Nations is established.

15 November 1920 The former German city of Danzig is declared a Free City under supervision of the League of Nations and foreign representation by Poland.

2 October 1924 The League of Nations outlaws war.

14 October 1933 Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.

18 April 1946 The League of Nations is dissolved and assets are transferred to the United Nations (UN).

 

United Nations (UN)

26 June 1945 United Nations (UN) are established when representatives of 51 states sign the Charter in San Francisco.

24 October 1945 United Nations Security Council is established.

10 February 1947 The Free Territory of Trieste is established under protection of the United Nations.

29 November 1947 United Nations vote to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish states.

9 December 1948 The United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopts the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

20 December 1948 The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

21 November 1949 The United Nations declare all former Italian colonies independent.

23 October 1956 The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is established.

1957 United Nations (UN) establish the Mekong Committee (MC).

16 December 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is signed.

16 December 1967 Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is signed.

1979 United Nations initiate Conference on Disarmament (CD).

10 October 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects is signed.

10 December 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS) is signed.

9 May 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) is signed.

5 June 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity is signed.

13 January 1993 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) is signed.

10 September 1996 The UN General Assembly adopts the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

3-5 December 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines (APM) and on their Destruction (Ottawa Convention) is signed.

16 March 1986 In a referendum, Switzerland rejects a proposal to join the United Nations (UN).

14 December 1994 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, is signed.

3 December 1997 Ottawa Convention or Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction is signed.

11 December 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the FCCC is signed.

17 July 1998 The Rome Statute on the International Criminal Court (ICC) is signed.

12 December 2000 Convention against Transnational Organized Crime is signed.

1 July 2002 International Criminal Court (ICC) is established.

9 December 2003 Convention against Corruption is signed.

20 December 2005 United Nations Peace Building Commission (PBC) is established.

15 March 2006 United Nations Human Rights Council (HRC) is established.

13 September 2007 The UN General Assembly adopts the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

3 December 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) is signed.

6 February 2007 Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearances signed.

24 December 2014 Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) entered into force.

 

World War 1

28 July 1914 World War 1 breaks out when Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia.

22 April 1915 First use of poison gas in World War 1 by the German army in battle of Ypres, Belgium.

18 December 1916 The US president launches a peace initiative urging the warring states to cite conditions for peace talks.

6 April 1917 United States of America declare war on Germany and enter World War 1.

8 January 1918 The US president proclaims his 14-Point Program to end the war.

11 November 1918 World War 1 ends.

28 June 1919 The German delegation signs the Treaty of Versailles and its severe obligations including substantial territorial losses.

10 September 1919 Austria signs allied peace treaty at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France.

 

World War 2

1 September 1939 Germany invades Poland and starts World War 2.

22 June 1941 German forces attack and invade the USSR and the USSR enters World War 2.

18 June 1941 General Charles De Gaulle (22 November 1890–9 November 1970) launches the Free French campaign and appeals to the people of France from London to join the fight against Nazi Germany (A substantial number of soldiers and supporters aided in the liberation of the country).

7 December 1941 Japan attacks the US Pearl Harbor base on Hawaii and the United States enter World War 2.

22-26 November 1943 Allied two-power and China summit conference is held in Cairo on defeating Japan.

28 November-1 December 1943 Allied three-power summit conference is held in Tehran on opening a second front in Europe.

6 June 1944 Allied forces land in Normandy and open a second front in Europe.

4-11 February 1945 Allied three-power summit conference is held in Yalta, Crimea, USSR, on European reconstruction.

7 May 1945 Germany surrenders and World War 2 ends in Europe.

17 July-2 August 1945 Final Allied three-power summit conference is held in Potsdam, Germany, on punishing Nazi Germany and restoring post-war order in Europe.

6 August 1945 US drops the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.

9 August 1945 US drops second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.

14 August 1945 US accepts the surrender of Japan.

2 September 1945 Japan surrenders formally and World War 2 in Asia ends.

10 February 1947 Representatives of the four Allied powers sign peace agreements in Paris with Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Italy, and Romania.

8 September 1951 A Treaty of Peace with Japan is formally concluded by 48 countries, including the Allied Powers and Japan in San Francisco.

8 October 1953 Great Britain and the US return part of Trieste to Italy.

26 October 1954 Allied occupation of Trieste is ended under a four-nation treaty.

 

Antarctica

1 December 1959 Antarctic Treaty is signed by twelve states.

 

Arctic

June 1980 Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) is established.

11 January 1993 Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC) established.

19 September 1996 Arctic Council established.

1 December 2014 Russian strategic military command in Severeomorsk, Murmansk oblast’, assumes military responsibility in the Arctic.

14 December 2014 Denmark claims the North Pole.

 

Africa

7 May 1929 Nile Basin Treaty concluded.

29 May 1959 Council of the Entente is established.

8 November 1959 Nile Waters Usage Agreement signed by Egypt and Sudan.

1961 The East African Common Services Organization (EASCO) is established.

12 May 1962 West African Monetary Union (UMOA) is established.

25 May 1963 Organization of African Unity (OAU) is established (It is dissolved on 25 May 2001 with the establishment of the African Union (AU)).

22 May 1964 Lake Chad Basin Commission (CBLT) is established.

8 December 1964 Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) is established.

1 December 1967 East African Community (EAC) succeeds the East African Common Services Organization (EASCO).

3 October 1973 Mano River Union (MRU) established.

28 May 1975 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is established.

6 June 1975 African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) established.

20 September 1976 Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) is established.

1 April 1980 Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) is established.

15-16 January 1986 The Intern-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is established.

17 August 1992 The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) is reorganized as Southern African Development Community (SADC).

21 December 1992 Central Free Trade Agreement (Area) (CEFTA) established.

10 January 1994 The West African Monetary Union (UMOA) is expanded as West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA).

11 April 1996 African Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone Treaty of Pelindaba is signed.

February 1999 Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) launched.

23 June 2000 Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (‘ACP countries’) aimed at the reduction and the eventual eradication of poverty succeeds Lomé Agreement which expired on 29 February 2000.

31 October 2000 Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) established.

10-12 October 2000 Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) is launched.

26 May 2001 African Union (AU) is established as successor to the Organization of African States (OAS).

9-10 July 2002 African Union (AU) replaces the Organization of African Unity (OAU).

22 October 2008 Africa Free Trade Area (AFTA) is established.
November 2010 South Atlantic Territories Cooperation Forum (SATC) is launched.

14 May 2011 Nile River Basin Cooperative Framework is signed.

15 February 2012 African Union adopts the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance.

December 2013 Outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa.

10 June 2015 Tripartite Free Trade Agreement (TFTA) is signed in Cairo and unites the trading blocs of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), East African Community (EAC), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

 

Americas

2 September 1947 The Rio Treaty or Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance Between the United States of America and other American Republics is signed.

30 April 1948 Organization of American States (OAS) is established.

1960 Conference of American Armies (CAA) is established.

10 December 1964 Latin American Parliament (PARLATINO) is established.

14 February 1967 Treaty of Tlateloco or Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is signed.

23 April 1969 River Plate Basin Treaty is signed.

25 April 1969 Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean Andean Community (OPANAL) established.

26 May 1969 Andean Pact Andean Group (CA/GA) established by the Treaty of Cartagena.

4 July 1973 Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) is established.

6 June 1975 African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) is established.

17 October 1975 Latin American Economic System (SELA) is established.

3 July 1978 Amazon Cooperation Treaty is signed.

18 June 1981 Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is established.

5 January 1983 Contadora Group/Group of Eight (G-8) is formed.

22 June 1984 Group of 11 (G11), also known as Cartagena Group, is established.

27 November 1987 Contadora Group is formed as Rio Group.

1 January 1989 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) enters into force.

26 March 1991 Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) is established.

1 October 1992 Andean Group renamed Andean Community of Nations (CAN).

29 October 1993 Central American Integration System (SICA) is established.

24 July 1994 Association of Caribbean States (ACS) is established.

24 July 1994 Treaty of Cartagena is signed.

14 December 2004 Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) is established.

1 March 2006 Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is signed.

23 May 2008 Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) is established.

23 February 2010 Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) is established.

November 2010 South Atlantic Territories Cooperation Forum (SATC) is launched.

22 December 2014 Construction begins on the planned Grand Canal linking the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.

20 July 2015 Cuba and the united States of America resume diplomatic relations after a 54-year break.

 

Asia

8 September 1954 South-East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established.

1957 United Nations (UN) establish the Mekong Committee (MC).

8 August 1967 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is established.

6 June 1975 African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) is established.

30 June 1977 South-East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) is disbanded.

1982 Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) is created.

1984 Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) is established.

8 December 1985 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is formed.

4 November 1989 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) established.

1992 Greater Mekong Subregion development program is launched by six Mekong countries with the assistance of the Asian Development Bank (ADB).

5 March 1952 Council of the Baltic See States (CBSS) is established.

30 October 1992 The 1st Summit of Heads of Turkic-Speaking States is held.

26 March 1993 International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS) is established

5 April 1995 Mekong River Commission (MRC) is established and replaces the UN Mekong Committee (MC).

15 December 1995 Treaty of Bangkok or Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (SEANWFZ) is signed.

6 March 1997 Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC) is established.

10 October 1997 Union of Three, forerunner of GUAM, is established.

6-7 June 2000 Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM) succeeds Union of Three.

15 June 2001 Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is established, formalizing Shanghai Five treaty arrangements of 2005.

10 October 2001 Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) is established.

4 June 2002 Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) is established.

27 September 2002 Treaty on the Central Asian Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone is signed.

9 February 2005 Treaty of Tashkent or Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Central Asia is signed.

26 December 2004 An earthquake of 9.0 magnitude centered off Aceh Province, Sumatra, on the western end of the Indonesian archipelago releases a series of tsunami ocean tidal waves reaching the shores of Kenya and Somalia but devastating especially coastal areas of India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Thailand and killing in excess of an estimated 230,000 people.

2-3 October 2009 Turkic-Speaking Countries Cooperation Council is formed.

28 April 2011 Pacific Alliance is established.

2 May 2011 US military commandoes secretly enter Pakistan and kill the head of al-Qa’ida at his quarters outside Abbottabad.

22 May 2014 Thailand’s military seizes the government and suspends the constitution.

2 June 2014 Northwestern Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh becomes 29th Indian state of Telangana.

 

Recent Wars

19 December 1946-1 August 1954 First Indochina War

22 October 1947-1 January 1949 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

25 June 1950-27 July 1953     Korean War

1 November 1955-30 April 1975 Vietnam War

August 1965-23 September 1965 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

26 March 1971-16 December 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War

3-16 December 1971 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

25 December 1979-15 February 1989 Soviet-Afghan War

23 July 1983-18 May 2009 Sri Lankan Civil War

May 1999-July 1999 Indo-Pakistani War of 1999/Kargil War

7 October 2001-28 December 2014 Allied War in Afghanistan

 

 

Europe

8 October 1912 The 1st Balkan war breaks out when the Kingdom of Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire.

29 June 1913 The 2nd Balkan war breaks out when Bulgaria attacks Serbia and ends with the peace of Bucharest on 10 August.

28 July 1914 World War 1 breaks out when Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia.

22 April 1915 First use of poison gas in World War 1 by the German army in battle of Ypres, Belgium.

6 April 1917 United States of America declare war on Germany and enter World War 1.

5 March 1946 The former British Prime Minister in a speech in Fulton, Missouri, for the first time refers to the “Iron Curtain” that has been lowered on Europe.

17 March 1948 The Brussels Treaty or Treaty for Collaboration in Economic Social and Cultural Matters and for Collective Self-Defense which establishes the Western European Union (WEU) is signed.

16 April 1948 The Organization for European and Economic Cooperation (OEEC) is established.

18 August 1948 Danube Commission is established.

25 January 1949 Communist states establish the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (COMECON).

4 April 1949 Representatives of 12 states in Washington sign the North Atlantic Treaty to establish the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

5 May 1949 Council of Europe (CE) is established.

8 August 1949 The Council of Europe is established.

16 April 1952 Nordic Council (NC) is established.

23 October 1954 Paris Agreements on the Western European Union (WEU) are signed.

14 May 1955 Representatives of 8 states in Warsaw sign the Warsaw Pact Treaty.

3 February 1958 BENELUX Economic Union (BLEU) is established.

4 June 1960 European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is established.

30 July-1 August 1975 First Summit Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in Helsinki.

1 August 1975 Organization for Security and Cooperation Europe (OSCE) is established.

12 November 1989 Central European Initiative (CEI) is launched.

19 November 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) is signed by the heads of state of 22 countries.

15 February 1991 Visegrad Group (Visegrad Four) (V4) is established.

31 March 1991 Heads of state of the six members of the Warsaw Pact in Moscow sign the protocol to dissolve the organization

28 June 1991 Council for Mutual Economic Aid (COMECON) disbands.

1 July 1991 Warsaw Pact is dissolved.

25 November 1991 The Weimar Triangle is established.

8 December 1991 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is established.

20 December 1991 North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) is established.

21 December 1991 Eight of the remaining states of the Soviet Union, except the Baltic states and Georgia, sign the Alma-Ata Protocol and join the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

5 March 1992 Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) is established.

25 June 1992 Black Sea Economic Cooperation Area (BSECA) is established.

11 January 1993 Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC) established.

14 May 1993 Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), except Tajikistan, create economic union.

1994 Mediterranean Forum (FOROMED) is established.

January 1994 NATO launches Partnership for Peace (PfP).

28 November 1994 Vienna Documents 1990, 1992 and 1994 on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures are signed.

14 December 1995 Dayton Accord is signed.

6 December 1994 OSCE Minsk Group is established.

1996 Southeastern European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) is launched.

2 April 1996 Union State of Russia and Belarus is established.

3 May 1996 The European Social Charter is adopted by the Council of Europe.

6-7 July 1996 South East European Cooperation Process (SEECP) is launched.

30 May 1997 The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) replaces the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC).

8 July 1997 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) invites Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovenia to become members.

5 June 1998 Black Sea Economic Cooperation Area (BSECA) is renamed Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).

24 March 1999 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) begins attacks on military and infrastructure targets in Yugoslavia with bombs and cruise missiles to compel withdrawal of Yugoslav forces from Kosovo and end ethnic cleansing.

10 June 1999 NATO suspends bombing following Yugoslavia’s agreement to withdraw its forces from Kosovo.

30 July 1999 The Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe is signed and launched.

8 December 1999 Presidents of Belarus and Russia sign Russia-Belarus Union State Treaty.

6-7 June 2000 Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM) succeeds Union of Three.

10 October 2001 Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) is established.

2 May 2003 Adriatic Charter is signed.

13 July 2008 Union for the Mediterranean (UPM) is established.

31 March 2010 Western European Union (WEU) is terminated.

26 February 2014 Russia illegally annexes the Crimea of Ukraine.

21 March 2014 Republic of Crimea and Federal City of Sevastopol are admitted as constituent entities into the Russian Federation.

1 April 2014 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) suspends all military cooperation with Russia.

5 September 2014 Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Russian Federation, and Ukraine in Minsk agrees on Minsk I 12-point Protocol and ceasefire in Ukraine.

12 February 2015 Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Russian Federation, and Ukraine in Minsk agrees on Minsk II Measures for Implementation of the Minsk Agreements.

 

European Union (EU)

18 April 1951 Six European states sign the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

23 July 1952 European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the forerunner of the European Union, is established.

25 March 1957 Representatives of six nations in Rome sign the Treaties of Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom).

1 January 1958 The European Community (EC) and the European Nuclear Community (EURATOM) are established.

8 April 1965 Six member states of the European Community sign the Treaty of Brussels to establish a single Council and a single Commission and integrates the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom).

1 July 1967 Representatives of six European nations sign treaty in Rome establishing the European Community (EC).

7-10 June 1979 The first elections for the European Parliament are held in the nine member states of the European Community.

23 February 1982 Greenland, after joining the European Economic Community (EEC) as part of Denmark, in a referendum votes to leave the EEC.

11 December 1991 Heads of state and government of members of the European Community (EC) meet in Maastricht, Netherlands, and approve the Maastricht Treaty on reforms, expansion of the Community, and creation of the European Union (EU).

1 January 1993 European Community (EC) opens internal market.

1 November 1993 European Community (EC) becomes European Union (EU).

17 June 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam is signed.

1 January 1999 European Union (EU) launches new single currency, the euro (€), which will replace 11 national currencies in 2002.

9 December 2000 Nice Treaty is signed.

1 January 2002 European Union (EU) introduces new single currency, the euro (€), in 11 member states of the European Monetary Union (EMU).

1 May 2004 The European Union (EU) is enlarged to 25 states by the admission of 10 new members: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.

29 May 2005 The majority of French voters in a referendum reject the proposed constitution for the European Union (EU) and derail efforts for its scheduled adoption.

13 December 2007 Treaty of Lisbon is signed.

7 May 2009 European Union launches the Eastern Partnership.

1 December 2009 Treaty of Lisbon of the European Union (EU) enters into force and the first permanent president of the EU takes office.

13 January 2010 The European Union (EU) reports severe irregularities in the public accounting of Greece.

2 February 2012 European Stability Mechanism (ESM) Treaty is signed.

2 March 2012 Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance (TSCG) in the Economic and Monetary Union is signed.

1 January 2014 Latvia joins the eurozone.

 

Middle East & North Africa

25 April 1920 Supreme Allied Council divides Middle East into British and French mandates under the League of Nations. Syria comes under the mandate of France and Palestine and Trans-Jordanian become mandates of Great Britain.

22 March 1945 League of Arab States (LAS) is established.

24 February 1955 Baghdad Pact is signed.

21 August 1959 The Baghdad Pact is redesignated as Central Treaty Organization (CENTO).

9 January 1968 Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) is established.

8 November 1970 Egypt, Libya, and Sudan establish the Arab Federation.

27 November 1970 Syria joins the three-nation Arab Federation.

17 October 1973 Arab oil-producing countries cut production and lower deliveries to US (Oil embargo ends on 18 March 1974).

January 1979 The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) is abandoned.

26 March 1979 Egypt and Israel sign peace treaty in Washington DC.

25 May 1981 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is established.

17 February 1989 Arab Maghreb Union (UMA) established.

30 October 1992 The 1st Summit of Heads of Turkic-Speaking States is held.

1994 Mediterranean Forum (FOROMED) is established.

4 February 1998 Community of Sahel-Saharan States (COMESSA) is established.

13 September 1993 The Oslo Accords on the Declaration of Principles (DOP) are signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

22 May 2004 The League of Arab States adopts the Arab Charter on Human Rights.

2-3 October 2009 Turkic-Speaking Countries Cooperation Council is formed.

18 December 2010 Following the self-immolation of a Tunisian vendor, popular protests known as the Arab Spring spread from North Africa to the Middle East.

January 2011 Arab Spring intensifies with the fall of the Tunisian government

25 January 2011 Start of popular uprising and demands for the overthrow of the Egyptian government and its president.

26 January 2011 Protests in Syria against corruption, the government, and in support of the people in Egypt and Libya begin with an act of self-immolation and quickly grow in intensity and size and are spreading to numerous cities by 15 March.

20 October 2011 The leader of the Libyan interim government declares victory of the revolution after the capture and death, presumably from a lynching near Sirte, of the Leader and Guide of the revolution of the so-called Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Colonel Mu’ammar Abu Minyar al-Qadhafi (June 1942-20 October 2011).

9 December 2011 In the view of the United Nations (UN), Syria is in the throes of a civil war.

10 January 2012 The Syrian president vows to fight rebels with an “iron fist.”

27 February 2012 Yemen’s president resigns after continuing demonstrations in the wake of the Arab Spring.

3 July 2013 Egypt’s military removes the elected president, dismisses government and legislature, and suspends the constitution.

29 June 2014 Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) announces restoration of Islamic Caliphate.

14 July 2015 The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on stopping Iranian nuclear arms activities is agreed on by China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States of America, Germany, the European Union and Iran after conclusion of negotiations which began in October 2009.

6 August 2015 Egypt completes expansion of Suez Canal.

 

Arab-Israeli Wars

14 May 1948 Arab countries attack Israel.

29 July 1949 The 1st Arab-Israeli War ends.

29 October 1956 Israel invades the Sinai Desert of Egypt.

5 November 1956 British and French troops land in Egypt.

6 November 1956 The 2nd Arab Israeli War ends.

5 June 1967 Israel attacks Egypt.

10 June 1967 The 3rd Arab-Israeli War or Six-Day War ends.

6 October 1973 Egypt and Syria attack Israel to regain occupied territory.

26 October 1973 The 4th Arab-Israeli war or Yom Kippur/Ramadan war ends.

 

Oceania

6 February 1947 South Pacific Commission (SPC) is established.

5 August 1971 South Pacific Forum (SPF) is established.

6 June 1975 African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) is established.

1983 Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) is founded.

6 August 1985 Treaty of Rarotonga establishing the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty is signed.

23 May 1997 South Pacific Commission (SPC) is renamed Pacific Community.

28 October 2000 The South Pacific Forum (SPF) is renamed Pacific Islands Forum (PIF).

18 August 2001 Pacific Island Countries’ Trade Agreement (PICTA) is signed.

23 March 2007 Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) is established.

 

Note

Events are included for general reference and not necessarily because of their relative historical importance.

 

Sources: IO database; Global Survey Reference (various issues); Dr. Carl Ploetz, Der Grosse Ploetz 32nd ed., 2000; Keesing’s Record of World Events (various years); William L. Langer ed., An Encyclopedia of World History, 1972; Political Handbook of the World (various years); quid (various years); Peter N. Stearns ed., An Encyclopedia of World History, 2001; US Department of the Army Area Handbooks (various countries); www.wikipedia.org.

 

Completion: Includes information dated 15 September 2015 or earlier. Completed in September 2015.

 

(Replacing Significant Events 1900-2013, Global Survey, Vol. 44, No. 437/10J, 10th Edition, September 2013.)

Published by The International Observer of Washington DC USA.